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### Course: Finance and capital markets > Unit 1

Lesson 3: Credit cards and loans# Payday loans

Payday loans, which are sometimes called cash advances, are a form of unsecured short-term loans that are typically associated with very high interest rates. In this video we explore an example of a payday loan and use that to better understand the defining characteristics of a payday loan, and how they translate into an effective interest rate. Created by Sal Khan.

## Want to join the conversation?

- At8:37Sal substracts 1 from 1.25^26, why?(31 votes)
- Imagine instead that a lender charged Sal 25% interest on a 1 year loan instead of a 2 week loan. To find the APR, we'd take (1.25)^1, which would be 1.25. If we didn't subtract 1, we would incorrectly conclude the APR is 125%. The correct APR is 1.25 - 1 = 0.25, or 25%.

To answer your question, the "1" represents the original loan amount. Think of it as 100%. In my example above, Sal owes 100% of the original amount of the loan plus an extra 25% due to interest.

The same concept applies to larger exponents. For example, if the loan was a 26 week loan, we'd take (1.25)^2 = 1.625. The APR would be 62.5%, which comes from 1.625 - 1 = 0.625. Sal would owe 100% of the original loan amount and an extra 62.5% of interest.(38 votes)

- At9:08Sal says 'usually they would make you at least roll over the principal'. What does rolling over the principle mean?(16 votes)
- The principal is the amount of money loaned, in this case $500. Rolling over the principal in this case means paying just the interest on the loan, and maybe an extra fee and then the store will essentially start the loan over with the same terms. So, if someone took $500 and paid just the $125 interest amount to roll over the loan every two weeks for a year, they would have paid $3250 in interest! And they still wouldn't have paid off the loan!(23 votes)

- according to Sal's example in the video, the interest is 25% per two weeks, that means 50% per month, which should mean %600 APR (50% * 12 month)

why is this result different than Sal's one "650%"?(6 votes)- That's because Sal puts that one year has 52 weeks. And it has. With your example a year has 4 weeks x 12 months = 48 weeks. 4 weeks disappear in your example. There are the missing 50% APR in your example - because of the tricky 5 weeks months ;-)(41 votes)

- 4:10.Sal makes 2 weeks 16 days.(2 votes)
- The payday was two weeks away starting on the next day. If he got the loan the night before after 5pm, January 1 wouldn't really count. On January 15, he would receive his paycheck, but that may take a few hours to clear. That is why many deposit slips may say, "deposits may not be available for immediate withdrawal". If he deposited his pay check at the end of the day after leaving work on January 15, the deposit may not be available to be withdrawn until after the business hours of the payday loan business. So, they would need to cash the check either after business hours, or at the beginning of the next day. Either way, they wouldn't be able to re-lend that money until the next day.(26 votes)

- Why a payday loan?Why not a regular loan for a lower rate?(1 vote)
- Probably most people who are taking out a payday loan feel like they have few or no other options, due to having borrowed too much already, having no checking or savings account, having unemployment or under-employment issues, medical expenses, and other reasons. They might have no access to a regular loan for a lower rate. Also, they might have access to other options, but just not know what to do to access them, or even how bad of a deal the payday loan actually is. Thanks to Khan Academy and other educating websites, some information about all of this can be more easily found.(10 votes)

- This must be a very old video, considering there are people who wrote questions 10 years ago! I figured this whole course was brand new. I guess not.(5 votes)
- The course reconfigured existing things (like this video) and added new material. Not everything here is new, but it's all valuable. Consider it as if in your city a new art museum were to be opened. It's contents would include old stuff and new, so it would be a valuable place to visit.(13 votes)

- In this example Sal simply did (1.25)^365 in order to find the APR. But what I did (and what mathematically should've been correct as well), was to figure out the percentage that is compounded per day.So I took 650/365 and got approx. 1.78%. Then I took this percent and did (1.0178)^365 and got approx 626.135. Why was my value for the APR so different from the one Sal got (approx. 329)?

I want to know why my method got me the incorrect APR, because in Sal's video about APR's he used this exact same method.(8 votes)- 1.78 its per day, if you multiply 1.78 x 14 (14 days) = 24.92%

24.92/100 = 0.2492

1 + 0.2492 = 1.2492

1.2492 ^ 26 (numbers of periods money increase) = 325.4(7 votes)

- 32,987% interest rates ... is that even legal?(6 votes)
- Usury protections in the Texas Constitution prohibit lenders from charging more than 10% interest unless the Texas Legislature specifically authorizes a higher rate. Payday and auto title businesses have found a way around the constitutional protections by exploiting a legal loophole.

The maximum permissible interest rates in Florida are 18% per annum simple interest for loans up to $500,000.00, and 25% per annum simple interest for loans of $500,000.00 or more. Note that those figures represent simple interest per full calendar year.

North Carolina interest rate laws set the maximum rate at 8 percent, but explicitly allow consumers and creditors to "contract for a higher rate." State law also exempts mortgage loans, equity lines of credit, and some other types of credit from the statutory limit.

Arizona's Usury law limits interest rates at 10%. If a bank or lending institution charges more than this interest rate, it will incur penalties.(4 votes)

- for credit score, is it better to keep payed off credit cards open or cancel them.(2 votes)
- Bizarrely, it is better to keep them open, because more available credit helps your score. Also keeping a low ratio of debt balance to available credit helps your score, and keeping the accounts open gives you a better denominator.

If you are going to close accounts, close them one at a time, and spread it out over time. That way the changes won't pile up in a short time, which would make the change look big.(7 votes)

- From5:49on, wouldn't you keep loans for WAY less than a year? What's the point of APR?(3 votes)
- He is "scaling up" the two week rate to the APR, so we can standardize the comparison mechanism.(4 votes)

## Video transcript

I think most of us have a sense
that payday loans are probably not the best source for
a loan, that they probably charge a lot of money to those
people who need that cash really badly. And what I want to do in this
video is one, explain what they are but even more do
a little bit of math to understand really how bad of
an interest that they do charge, So the way that works is let's
say that I need to buy my wife a nice gift for her birthday
that's tomorrow and I want to borrow $500. So I want to borrow $500. I would suspect that most people
aren't borrowing it for some type of a gift, they're
desperate to make the rent or pay the utilities or buy food
or who knows what else, but whatever your reason, you need
to borrow $500 and I would suspect that you have very
little in your bank account, otherwise you wouldn't go
to the payday lendor. And they say all right Sal,
we're open to lending you $500 and we're not going to do all
of this deep research on how good of a credit you are and
all of that, but we want a couple of things. One, we want to know your pay
stub and your pay date. They're going to want to see
your pay stub, they're going to they want to know when you're
going to get paid, so I guess we call it your payday. And they might want some
recent bank statements. And the whole reason why they
want these things is they want to know you know even though
your credit might be horrible, then you're going to get your
salary or you're going to to get a payment from your employer
probably in two weeks on your payday, and then you're
going to be good to pay back to the $500. And to ensure this, so one
they're going to make sure that you have a job, that in
your pay stub maybe you make $1,000 every two weeks or maybe
you make $2,000 every two weeks so that you're
good for this. So maybe you maybe make $1,500
every two weeks, so they like to see that. Maybe your payday is two weeks
from the day that you're borrowing it, borrowing
the money. So two weeks from today. And then your bank statement
shows that your bank kind of goes up $1,500 and you pay the
rent and the food and then it goes back close to zero, then it
goes up to $1,500 but they want to see that this $1,500
is hitting periodically. And they say, you know,
we're going to give you the $500 today. You need to write us a check. We want you to write a check for
not $500, for every $100 you borrow, I want you to
pay us back another $25. So $25 extra. And at first you might say,
that's not bad, that's 25% interest. It's high, maybe it
compares to some interest, some credit cards. But this isn't 25% a year, this
is 25% for two weeks. And at the end of this video,
we're going to do the map on what that actually turns
into on an APR, or an effective APR basis. And these numbers are not crazy,
these are actually very typical for payday loans. So if I'm borrowing $500, I
have to give them back the $500 in two weeks plus
$25 for every $100. So I'm borrowing $500, so I'm
going to have to do plus five times 25 five or $125. So I'm going to write them a
check for $500 plus a $125 so that's $625. I'm going to write a check, but
obviously I don't have the money in my bank account right
now, otherwise I wouldn't even be going to the payday loan. What I'm going to do on
the date, I'm going to forward-date this check. I'm going to put the date, let's
say this is the first of the month, instead of let's say,
it's January 1, I'm going to put January 16 and whatever
year I might be doing it. So I've forwarded it, this
is two weeks from today. Two weeks in the future, and
then I'm going to sign the check and I'll write it's for
a payday loan and I'll write $625 etc. etc., then I have my
little information here. And I'm going to give them this
check and what they're going to say is we're not going
to cash this, we're just going to keep this nice little
check for us and when your payday hits you have
an option. You can come back to us and give
us $625 in cash and then we will give you back this check
that is uncashed or if you don't show up, we are just
going to cash this check. So one of these two things
are going to happen. But effectively, if you didn't
lie to them, they're going to essentially charge you $625
and you can imagine it is risky for the lender or because
these are people with you know be maybe shady pay
stubs and obviously they're desperate, so they weren't
good at managing their finances, but they're doing
their best to ensure that once that payday comes in, once
that's that payment from the employer comes in, that they
get first dibs was on the money before the person can
pay their rent or their utilities or their food. And so that's the general
idea behind it. Now we start off saying this
probably not a good idea and you got a sense of that, because
we're essentially paying 25% interest for every
two weeks, not for every year. But let's think about what
that is on an APR basis. So let's say we're paying $25
for every $100, that's really 25 per cent. When you say per cent, that
root means hundred, right? Century, 100 years. So per cent, it literally
means per 100. 25 per 100, so this is literally
25% interest or we could write it the traditional
way, this is 25% interest per two weeks. So if we were just calculate a
simple APR, a simple annual percentage interest rate, and
you might want to watch the video on that to understand that
that just takes your 25% and then multiplies by the
number of periods in the year. So we have 52 weeks per year,
but this is every two weeks, so instead of multiplying it
by 52 weeks, we're going to multiply by there's 26 two-week
periods in the year. So times 26 two-week
periods per year. And this is 25% per two weeks. When you multiply this out, this
is equal to-- let's get the calculator out-- I'll just
multiply the numbers, I won't do the decimals. 25 times 26 equal to 650%. We're paying an APR of 650%. So if you thought the credit
card companies were charging a lot of interest, charging you
a mid teens interest rate or 20% rate, this is 650%. It's an order of magnitude
or two above what even credit cards charge. So this is a really, really,
crazy annual percentage rate and this was just a simple
annual percentage rate where we multiplied it by 26, this
isn't the effective annual percentage rate, or the actual
mathematically correct one. To do that, we would actually
have to take-- and you might want to watch the video on
this-- if you were to let that just compound, and you can
imagine if you're the payday lender, you are essentially
getting that compounding if you keep lending your money
out and if you lend the interest you get from the last
person, and you lend that out the same rate. To figure out that effective
annual percent rate, you do 1.25, 25% plus 1 to
the 26th power. We have 26 of these
periods in a year. And what is that going
to be equal to? So we have 1.25 to
the 26th power. And then we get this crazy
number, we're going to want to subtract a 1 from it, not
that it's going to change much of our math. So minus 1, and we get, well
let me be very clear-- essentially this is 329
times our money. So this if this was a one here,
that would be 100%. So let me just be clear, this
number right here that number right there is such a high
number it's hard to fathom. If you were to actually let
money compound at this rate, and usually they would make
you at least roll over the principal, so this may or may
not be accurate but that actual payday lender, if they
actually are able to roll over the money at this rate, they're
going to have 329 times their money. Or if you write it as
a percent, it would literally be 32,987. Literally, 32,987%. Or after a year, you'll
essentially have to pay roughly 330 times your money
back to the payday lender. And obviously they don't let
you compound like that, but this just gives you a sense
of how ridiculous this interest rate is. I mean, you might have heard
of the term usury. In the past, usury really meant
any kind of interest, but now in our current cultural
context we associate it with just an unreasonable
level of interest and that threshold might be different
for some people. Some people might say it's
unreasonable to pay 20%, or 30% interest, or 40% annual
interest. But I think everyone would agree that whether you
look at 650% or 33,000%, these are usurious and reasonable
interest rates. So you really, at all costs,
unless your life depends on it, you want to avoid
these payday loans.