AP®︎/College Art History
- Introduction to the middle ages
- Christianity, an introduction for the study of art history
- Architecture and liturgy
- The life of Christ in medieval and Renaissance art
- A New Pictorial Language: The Image in Early Medieval Art
- Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome
- Basilica of Santa Sabina, Rome
- Santa Sabina
- Jacob wrestling the angel, Vienna Genesis
- Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well, Vienna Genesis
- A beginner's guide to Byzantine Art
- San Vitale, Ravenna
- Justinian Mosaic, San Vitale
- Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
- Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
- Theotokos mosaic, apse, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
- Hagia Sophia as a mosque
- Deësis mosaic, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
- Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George
- The Lindisfarne Gospels
- The Lindisfarne Gospels
- The Bayeux Tapestry
- The Bayeux Tapestry - Seven Ages of Britain - BBC One
- Church and Reliquary of Sainte‐Foy, France
- Chartres Cathedral
- Bible moralisée (moralized bibles)
- Saint Louis Bible (moralized bible)
- The Golden Haggadah
- Röttgen Pietà
- Röttgen Pietà
- Giotto, Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel (part 1)
- Giotto, Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel (part 2)
- Giotto, Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel (part 3)
- Giotto, Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel (part 4)
A beginner's guide to Byzantine Art
By Dr. Ellen Hurst
Approximate boundaries of the Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent in the mid-6th century (underlying map © Google)
To speak of “Byzantine Art” is a bit problematic, since the Byzantine empire and its art spanned more than a millennium and penetrated geographic regions far from its capital in Constantinople. Thus, Byzantine art includes work created from the fourth century to the fifteenth century and encompassing parts of the Italian peninsula, the eastern edge of the Slavic world, the Middle East, and North Africa. So what is Byzantine art, and what do we mean when we use this term?
Isidore of Miletus & Anthemius of Tralles for Emperor Justinian, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 532-37, photo: Steven Zucker (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
It’s helpful to know that Byzantine art is generally divided up into three distinct periods:
|Early Byzantine||c. 330–750|
|Middle Byzantine||c. 850–1204|
|Late Byzantine||c. 1261–1453|
Early Byzantine (c. 330–750)
The adopted Christianity and in 330 moved his capital from Rome to Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), at the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire. Christianity flourished and gradually supplanted the Greco-Roman gods that had once defined Roman religion and culture. This religious shift dramatically affected the art that was created across the empire.
Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George, sixth or early seventh century, encaustic on wood, 2' 3" x 1' 7 3/8" (St. Catherine's Monastery, Sinai, Egypt; photo: NBS, public domain)
The earliest Christian churches were built during this period, including the famed Hagia Sophia, which was built in the sixth century under . Decorations for the interior of churches, including icons and mosaics, were also made during this period. Icons, such as the Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George, served as tools for the faithful to access the spiritual world—they served as spiritual gateways.
Similarly, mosaics, such as those within the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna, sought to evoke the heavenly realm. In this work, ethereal figures seem to float against a gold background that is representative of no identifiable earthly space. By placing these figures in a spiritual world, the mosaics gave worshippers some access to that world as well. At the same time, there are real-world political messages affirming the power of the rulers in these mosaics. In this sense, art of the Byzantine Empire continued some of the traditions of Roman art.
Justinian mosaic, 540s, San Vitale, Ravenna (photo: byzantologist, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
Generally speaking, Byzantine art differs from the art of the Romans in that it is interested in depicting that which we cannot see—the intangible world of Heaven and the spiritual. Thus, the Greco-Roman interest in depth and naturalism is replaced by an interest in flatness and mystery.
Middle Byzantine (c. 843–1204)
The Middle Byzantine period followed a period of crisis for the arts called the Iconoclastic Controversy, when the use of religious images was hotly contested. Iconoclasts (those who worried that the use of images was idolatrous), destroyed images, leaving few surviving images from the Early Byzantine period. Fortunately for art history, those in favor of images won the fight and hundreds of years of Byzantine artistic production followed.
The stylistic and thematic interests of the Early Byzantine period continued during the Middle Byzantine period, with a focus on building churches and decorating their interiors. There were some significant changes in the empire, however, that brought about some change in the arts. First, the influence of the empire spread into the Slavic world with the Russian adoption of Orthodox Christianity in the tenth century. Byzantine art was therefore given new life in the Slavic lands.
Cross-in-square plan, the Myrelaion church (Bodrum Mosque), c. 920, Constantinople (Istanbul) (adapted from plan © Vasileios Marinis)
Architecture in the Middle Byzantine period overwhelmingly moved toward the centralized for which Byzantine architecture is best known.
Central dome and squiches, 11th century, mosaic, narthex, katholikon, Hosios Loukas, Boeotia (photo: Evan Freeman, CC BY-SA 4.0)
Hosios Loukas, Greece, early 11th century (photo: Jonathan Khoo, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
These churches were usually on a much smaller-scale than the massive Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, but, like Hagia Sophia, the roofline of these churches was always defined by a dome or domes. This period also saw increased ornamentation on church exteriors. A particularly good example of this is the tenth-century Hosios Loukas Monastery in Greece.
Harbaville Triptych, ivory, traces of polychromy, 28.2 x 24.2 cm (Louvre)
This was also a period of increased stability and wealth. As such, wealthy patrons commissioned private luxury items, including carved ivories, such as the celebrated Harbaville Tryptich, which was used as a private devotional object. Like the sixth-century icon discussed above (Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George), it helped the viewer gain access to the heavenly realm. Interestingly, the heritage of the Greco-Roman world can be seen here, in the awareness of mass and space. See for example the subtle breaking of the straight fall of drapery by the right knee that projects forward in the two figures in the bottom register of the Harbaville Triptych (left). This interest in representing the body with some naturalism is reflective of a revived interest in the classical past during this period. So, as much as it is tempting to describe all Byzantine art as “ethereal” or “flattened,” it is more accurate to say that Byzantine art is diverse. There were many political and religious interests as well as distinct cultural forces that shaped the art of different periods and regions within the Byzantine Empire.
Lower register (detail), Harbaville Triptych, ivory, traces of polychromy, 28.2 x 24.2 cm (Louvre; photo: Jastrow, public domain)
Late Byzantine (c. 1261–1453)
Between 1204 and 1261, the Byzantine Empire suffered another crisis: the Latin Occupation. Crusaders from Western Europe invaded and captured Constantinople in 1204, temporarily toppling the empire in an attempt to bring the eastern empire back into the fold of western Christendom. (By this point Christianity had divided into two distinct camps: eastern [Orthodox] Christianity in the Byzantine Empire and western [Latin] Christianity in the European west.)
Anastasis (Harrowing of Hell), c. 1310–20, fresco, Church of the Holy Savior of Chora/Kariye Museum, Istanbul (photo: Till.niermann, CC BY-SA 3.0)
By 1261 the Byzantine Empire was free of its western occupiers and stood as an independent empire once again, albeit markedly weakened. The breadth of the empire had shrunk, and so had its power. Nevertheless Byzantium survived until the Ottomans took Constantinople in 1453. In spite of this period of diminished wealth and stability, the arts continued to flourish in the Late Byzantine period, much as it had before.
Icon of St. George ('The Black George'), c. 1400–50, tempera on panel, 77.4 x 57 cm (© The Trustees of the British Museum)
Although Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453—bringing about the end of the Byzantine Empire—Byzantine art and culture continued to live on in its far-reaching outposts, as well as in Greece, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire, where it had flourished for so long. The Russian Empire, which was first starting to emerge around the time Constantinople fell, carried on as the heir of Byzantium, with churches and icons created in a distinct “Russo-Byzantine” style(left). Similarly, in Italy, when the Renaissance was first emerging, it borrowed heavily from the traditions of Byzantium. Cimabue’s Madonna Enthroned of 1280–90 is one of the earliest examples of the Renaissance interest in space and depth in panel painting. But the painting relies on Byzantine conventions and is altogether indebted to the arts of Byzantium.
So, while we can talk of the end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, it is much more difficult to draw geographic or temporal boundaries around the empire, for it spread out to neighboring regions and persisted in artistic traditions long after its own demise.
Essay by Dr. Ellen Hurst
Want to join the conversation?
- Why weren't the Byzantines interested in showing depth in their images?(3 votes)
- Britannica has an excellent article over Byzantine art. (http://www.britannica.com/art/Byzantine-art). Here are some excerpts explaining the philosophy behind the style:
"Byzantine art is almost entirely concerned with religious expression and, more specifically, with the impersonal translation of carefully controlled church theology into artistic terms. Its forms of architecture and painting grew out of these concerns and remained uniform and anonymous, perfected within a rigid tradition rather than varied according to personal whim..."
"The style in which these mosaics and frescoes were executed reflected their function as static, symbolic images of the divine and the Absolute. The mature Byzantine style, evolved through the stylization and standardization of late classical forms of Early Christian art, was based on the dynamic of lines and flat areas of colour rather than form. Individual features were suppressed in favour of a standard facial type, figures were flattened, and draperies were reduced to patterns of swirling lines. The total effect was one of disembodiment, the three-dimensional representation of an individual human figure replaced by a spiritual presence the force of which depended upon vigour of line and brilliance of colour."(7 votes)
- The article states, "Byzantine art is generally divided up into three distinct periods: Early Byzantine (c. 330–750) Middle Byzantine (c. 850–1204) Late Byzantine (c. 1261–1453)" So, how do we classify Byzantine art produced between 751-849 and 1205-1260?(3 votes)
- (c. 751 - 849) was the iconoclastic period. Between 1205 and 1260 Constantinople (the very cultural heart of Byzantium) was ruled by Crusaders, which did not inspire much artistic activity. You can see why these years lie outside the three periods given. :)(5 votes)
- It might be a bit off-topic but do you have something on comparison between Byzantine and Roman floor mosaics? I'm looking into how can I define a specific one I have in mind.(1 vote)
- After the turks invaded, did they change the religion in Constantinople? And if they did, to what? Also, why did you think they wanted to preserve Hagia Sophia as one of their buildings? I know they converted it into a mosque, but what did they change of it?(1 vote)
- Foreign invaders sometimes have "imposed" their religions on the people of the regions they have invaded. This can be seen in the progressive "Christianization" of central and northern Europe. Sometimes, though, the peoploe of the invaded regions change to the invaders' religion because their own former religion is seen to have failed them.
The city that was Byzantium, then Constantinople, then Istanbul, has been the home to many religions. Though majority Muslim now, it has been majority "other religions" in the past.
The building of Hagia Sophia is majestic. Of course the Turks wanted to keep it. It merely needed to be repurposed. Removing some of the furnishings and decorations was the only thing required. Some of the mosaics were pulled off the walls, others merely painted or plastered over.(1 vote)
- Say stuff abuot the walls(1 vote)
- The article has already been here for 9 years. It's not going to change. If you would like to learn more about the walls, you will have to search for that outside of Khan Academy. Happy hunting!(1 vote)
- How did they make the mosaics I can not find it in the article?(0 votes)
- When was this article published?(0 votes)
- Cite this page as: Dr. Ellen Hurst, "A beginner’s guide to Byzantine art," in Smarthistory, August 8, 2014, accessed February 20, 2017, https://smarthistory.org/a-beginners-guide-to-byzantine-art/.(0 votes)