AP®︎/College Art History
- Cabrera, Portrait of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz
- Wright of Derby, A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery
- Fragonard, The Swing
- Thomas Jefferson, Monticello
- David, Oath of the Horatii
- David, Oath of the Horatii
- Jean-Antoine Houdon, George Washington
- Vigée Le Brun, Self-Portrait
- Goya, And there's nothing to be done (from the Disasters of War)
- Painting colonial culture: Ingres’s La Grande Odalisque
- Ingres, La Grande Odalisque
- Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People
- Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People
- Thomas Cole, The Oxbow
- Thomas Cole, The Oxbow
- Early Photography: Niépce, Talbot and Muybridge
- Turner, Slave Ship
- Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin, Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament)
Thomas Jefferson, Monticello
Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, Charlottesville, Virginia, 1770-1806. Photo: Rick Stillings (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
A gentleman architect
In an undated note, Thomas Jefferson left clear instructions about what he wanted engraved upon his burial marker:
Here was buried
Author of the Declaration of American Independence
of the Statute of Virginia for religious freedom
Father of the University of Virginia
Jefferson explained, “because by these, as testimonials that I have lived, I wish most to be remembered.” To be certain, there are important achievements Jefferson neglected. He was also the Governor of Virginia, American minister to France, the first Secretary of State, the third president of the United States, and one of the most accomplished gentleman architects in American history. To quote William Pierson, an architectural historian, “In spite of the fact that his training and resources were those of an amateur, he was able to perform with all the insight and boldness of a high professional.”
Indeed, even had he never entered political life, Jefferson would be remembered today as one of the earliest proponents of neoclassical architecture in the United States. Jefferson believed art was a powerful tool; it could elicit social change, could inspire the public to seek education, and could bring about a general sense of enlightenment for the American public. If Cicero believed that the goals of a skilled orator were to Teach, to Delight, and To Move, Jefferson believed that the scale and public nature of architecture could fulfill these same aspirations.
Thomas Jefferson, Monticello (view from the north), Charlottesville, Virginia, 1770-1806. Photo: Virginia Hill (CC BY-ND 2.0)
Return to the classical
Jefferson arrived at the College of William and Mary in 1760 and took an immediate interest in the architecture of the college’s campus and of Williamsburg more broadly. A lifelong book lover, Jefferson began his architectural collection while a student. His first two purchases were James Leoni’s The Architecture of A. Palladio (1715-1720) and James Gibbs’ Rules for Drawing the Several Parts of Architecture (1732).
Although never formally trained as an architect, Jefferson, both while a student and then later in life, expressed dissatisfaction with the architecture that surrounded him in Williamsburg, believing that the Wren-Baroque aesthetic common in colonial Virginia was too British for a North American audience. In an oft-quoted passage from Notes on Virginia (1782), Jefferson critically wrote of the architecture of Williamsburg:
“The College and Hospital are rude, mis-shapen piles, which, but that they have roofs, would be taken for brick-kilns. There are no other public buildings but churches and court-houses, in which no attempts are made at elegance.”
Thus, when Jefferson began to design his own home, he turned not to the architecture then in vogue around the Williamsburg area, but instead to the classically inspired architecture of Antonio Palladio and James Gibbs. Rather than place his plantation house along the bank of a river—as was the norm for Virginia's landed gentry during the eighteenth century—Jefferson decided instead to place his home, which he named Monticello (Italian for "little mountain") atop a solitary hill just outside Charlottesville, Virginia.
French Neo-Classicism for an American audience
Construction began in 1768 when the hilltop was first cleared and leveled, and Jefferson moved into the completed South Pavilion two years later. The early phase of Monticello’s construction was largely completed by 1771. Jefferson left both Monticello and the United States in 1784 when he accepted an appointment as America Minister to France. Over the next five years, that is, until September 1789 when Jefferson returned to the United States to serve as Secretary of State under newly elected President Washington, Jefferson had the opportunity to visit Classical and Neoclassical architecture in France.
Thomas Jefferson, Rotunda, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, 1819-26. (Photo: Michael Hebb, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
This time abroad had an enormous effect on Jefferson’s architectural designs. The Virginia State Capitol (1785-1789) is a modified version of the Maison Carrée (16 B.C.E.), a Roman temple Jefferson saw during a visit to Nîmes, France. And although Jefferson never went so far as Rome, the influence that the Pantheon (125 C.E.) had over his Rotunda (begun 1817) at the University of Virginia is so evident it hardly need be mentioned.
Politics largely consumed Jefferson from his return to the United States until the last day of 1793 when he formally resigned from Washington’s cabinet. From this year until 1809, Jefferson diligently redesigned and rebuilt his home, creating in time one of the most recognized private homes in the history of the United States. In it, Jefferson fully integrated the ideals of French neoclassical architecture for an American audience.
In this later construction period, Jefferson fundamentally changed the proportions of Monticello. If the early construction gave the impression of a Palladian two-story pavilion, Jefferson’s later remodeling, based in part on the Hôtel de Salm (1782-87) in Paris, gives the impression of a symmetrical single-story brick home under an austere Doric entablature. The west garden façade—the view that is once again featured on the American nickel—shows Monticello’s most recognized architectural features. The two-column deep extended portico contains Doric columns that support a triangular pediment that is decorated by a semicircular window. Although the short octagonal drum and shallow dome provide Monticello a sense of verticality, the wooden balustrade that circles the roofline provides a powerful sense of horizontality. From the bottom of the building to its top, Monticello is a striking example of French Neoclassical architecture in the United States.
Rembrandt Peale, Thomas Jefferson, 1805, oil on linen, 28 x 23 1/2 in (New-York Historical Society)
Jefferson changed political parties and was a Democratic-Republican by the time he was elected president. He believed the young United States needed to forge a strong diplomatic relationship with France, a country Jefferson and his political brethren believed were our revolutionary brothers in arms. With this in mind, it is unsurprising that Jefferson designed his own home after the neoclassicism then popular in France, a mode of architecture that was distinct from the style then fashionable in Great Britain. This neoclassicism—with roots in the architecture of ancient Rome—was something Jefferson was able to visit while abroad.
Buildings that speak to democratic ideals
By helping to introduce classical architecture to the United States, Jefferson intended to reinforce the ideals behind the classical past: democracy, education, rationality, civic responsibility. Because he detested the English, Jefferson continually rejected British architectural precedents for those from France. In doing so, Jefferson reinforced the symbolic nature of architecture. Jefferson did not just design a building; he designed a building that eloquently spoke to the democratic ideals of the United States. This is clearly seen in the Virginia State Capitol, in the Rotunda at the University of Virginia, and especially in his own home, Monticello.
Essay by Dr. Bryan Zygmont
Want to join the conversation?
- I am going to sound like a total jerk here, BUT: does anyone else think this building is a weird, ugly chimaera of styles? It's a really bizarre cobbling-together of unpainted ancient Greek religious architecture, and dull southern brick. Can anyone explain the appeal? I want to understand why this building is so well-received by art historians.(8 votes)
- I think that appropriation--taking some Greek and Roman architecture an molding it to an American use--is very much part of the appeal. That 'chimaera' style is part of the appeal and shows the ways in which Jefferson was well acquainted with classical architecture. It's an important building for the ways in which Jefferson helped to further advance neoclassical architecture in the United States.(13 votes)
- You said that this building was a "return to classical". What are the neoclassical elements in this building?(2 votes)
- Doric(Greek) columns appear on the façade of Monticello, and the pediment crowns the entrance and the top window. The dome graces the center of the building, and the interior layout is symmetrical with rectangular rooms mirroring one another on either side of the building.(5 votes)
- Why is Thomas Jefferson considered to be the Father of American Architecture?(2 votes)
- I re-read the entire article and missed this assertion. Could mean I read it poorly, could mean it's not there. What I DID find is that Jefferson changed the direction of American Architecture from that which mimicked British styles to that which mimicked French styles and reflected American democratic thinking.(5 votes)
- What materials and technique was the Jefferson home made from?(2 votes)
- why did jefferson like montechello so much(1 vote)
- It was his home. Many people like their homes.(6 votes)
- Has anyone else been listening to Hamilton during this unit? It fits perfectly XD(2 votes)
- When I read this, I gasped! It was exactly what I was doing!! LOVE Hamilton!(2 votes)
- It is so ironic that this is “a building that eloquently spoke to the democratic ideals of the United States,” yet was designed as a plantation house FULL of slaves and built by slaves. Funny how Dr. Zygmont does not mention that.(2 votes)
- You make a cogent observation. Are you sure that it belongs here, in the questions forum for all Khan Academy learners around the world? If it belongs in your Google Class, you should make sure to post it there, too, so you'll get proper credit.(0 votes)
- Correction: It is Andrea Palladio and not Antonio Palladio.(1 vote)
- Thomas Jefferson’s lifelong work on his home in Monticello stands as a key conduit for old world ideas as they were brought into the young United States. What specific aspects of his house at Monticello have direct relationships to aspects of what became American architecture and society?(0 votes)
- You may find the answers that you're seeking here: https://www.history.com/topics/monticello(1 vote)
- I am going there with my family. What will I see?(0 votes)