Art of Africa
- Igbo-Ukwu, an overview
- Benin Plaques
- The Benin “Bronzes”: a story of violence, theft, and artistry
- Benin plaques at the British Museum
- The Kingdom of Benin
- Benin Art: Patrons, Artists and Current Controversies
- The Imagery of Power on Benin Bronze Plaques
- Benin and the Portuguese
- Queen Mother Pendant Mask (Iyoba) (Edo peoples)
- Benin Plaque: Equestrian Oba and Attendants
- Ere Ibeji Figures (Yoruba peoples)
- Yorùbá artist, pair of twin figures (Ère Ìbejì)
- Ibadandun woman’s wrapper, unrecorded Yoruba artist
- Ceremonial robe (agbádá ìlèkè), Yoruba artist
- Kingdom of Ife: Sculptures from West Africa
- Head of a ruler, Ife
- Ife uncovered
- Ife remembered
- Olowe of Ise, Veranda Post of Enthroned King and Senior Wife
- Olowe of Ise, Veranda Post (Yoruba people)
- Olowe of Ise, veranda post (Yoruba peoples)
- Benin crafts
- Male figure, Ikenga (Igbo Peoples)
- Ikenga (Igbo peoples)
- Uche Okeke
- Yinka Shonibare, The Swing (After Fragonard)
- Shonibare, The Swing
By Dr. Allison Young
With her fingers delicately grasping the thickly coiled rope of a swing suspended mid-flight, a life-sized female mannequin flirtatiously kicks up her left foot, projecting her slipper into the air where it hovers above a tangle of branches. Our gaze is directed from the arch of her foot towards the vibrant trim of her petticoat, gown, and coat.
A recreation of a Rococo painting
The Swing (After Fragonard) is a three-dimensional recreation of the Rococo painting after which it was titled, which itself offers testimony to the opulence and frivolity of . Painted in 1767, Jean-Honoré Fragonard’s The Swing depicts a coquettish young girl swinging in a lush and fertile forest and, of course, playfully kicking up her shoe. A sculpture of a bashful cherub looks on, but he is not alone; the female figure is flanked by two male figures lurking in the shadows, one seems to push her swing from behind, as the other mischievously glances up the layers of her dress to catch a glimpse of what is beneath.
Living with history
Living in England, with my colonial relationship to this country, one cannot escape all these Victorian things, because they are everywhere: in architecture, culture, attitude... Yinka Shonibare CBE 
Shonibare’s quotations of 18th- and 19th-century style and sensibility are visually captivating; at the same time, tableaux such as The Swing contain some dark undertones. To begin with, the beautiful young protagonist of Fragonard’s painting has somehow become headless. This is likely a reference to the use of the guillotine during the in the 1790s, when members of the French aristocracy were publicly beheaded. Drawing our attention to questions of excess, class, and morality that were raised by revolutionaries two centuries ago, Shonibare invites us to also consider the increasing disparity between economic classes today, especially alongside the growing culture of paranoia, terror, and xenophobia in global politics since 9/11.
As a British-born Nigerian, raised between Lagos and London, Shonibare is especially perceptive to the ways in which issues of access, nationalism, and belonging have their roots in modern European history, particularly with regards to the United Kingdom and its relationship to its . Here is where the specific fabrics that Shonibare utilizes become more relevant, as their symbolism is steeped in histories of cultural appropriation, imperialism, and power.
Indonesian motifs, made by Europeans, sold in West Africa
Though tailored in the fashion of 18th-century French aristocratic style, the costume that is modeled by Shonibare’s protagonist has been sewn from colorful and abstractly patterned fabrics with quite different origins: the bright golds, reds, and blues arranged in geometric motifs across her ruffled skirt are typical of the "African" Dutch wax fabrics that Shonibare has famously used to adorn his figural tableaux throughout his career.
While these fabrics have come to signify African identity today, the patterns on Dutch wax fabrics were originally based on motifs found in Indonesian , and were manufactured in England and Holland in the 19th century. Predictably, the European imitations did not prove lucrative when sold in South Asian markets, so Dutch manufacturers then marketed the textiles to their West African colonies, where they have since been appropriated and integrated into local visual culture.
As such, Dutch wax fabrics as we know them today are the product of the complex economic and cultural entanglements that resulted from European imperialism. As curator Okwui Enwezor has explained, Shonibare uses the fabrics “as a tool to investigate the place of ethnicity and the stereotype in modernist representation. (...) The textile is neither Dutch nor African, therefore, the itinerary of ideas it circulates are never quite stable in their authority or meaning.” 
Aesthetics and authenticity
As fictional as their "African-ness" may appear to be, however, the fabrics have now been completely assimilated in places like Nigeria, where Shonibare grew up. As Enwezor points out, the material is “both fake and authentic, both readymade and original,” not to mention indisputably cosmopolitan. 
The question of what is “authentically” African has personal resonance for Shonibare, who, as an art student in London, was shocked when one of his instructors suggested that he make work that expressed his African identity. This conversation prompted him to think about stereotypes and the areas that exist between categories of identity and culture. The artist began using the material in 1992.
In pursuit of leisure
What might Shonibare wish to communicate by bringing together these “African” textiles with Fragonard’s Rococo images, or any of the other European artworks that the artist has appropriated in his sculptural installations?
In Pursuit of Leisure
In imaging this particular moment in European history, Shonibare wishes to forge connections between imperialism, the aristocracy, and the “colonized wealthy class.”  In The Swing (after Fragonard), which is loaded with references to the French Revolution, the Age of Enlightenment and colonial expansion into Africa, Shonibare asks us to consider how a simple act of leisure can be so controversial.
While the leisure pursuit might look frivolous (...) my depiction of it is a way of engaging in that power. It is actually an expression of something much more profoundly serious insofar as the accumulation of wealth and power that is personified in leisure was no doubt a product of exploiting people. Yinka Shonibare CBE 
In this and other works, Shonibare chooses stories—including biographies, world events, and works of art—which are already effective allegories concerning race, class, corruption and greed, calling our attention to some of the darker moments in history. However, his use of the Dutch wax fabric, with its spurious origins and its misleading aesthetic identity, serve as a reminder that history and truth are also themselves constructions.
 Yinka Shonibare CBE as quoted by Rachel Kent, "Time and Transformation in the Art of Yinka Shonibare MBE," Yinka Shonibare MBE, exhibition catalogue (Munich: Prestel Publishing, 2008), p. 14.
 Okwui Enwezor, “Tricking the Mind: The Work of Yinka Shonibare,” Authentic/Ex-Centric: Conceptualism in Contemporary African Art, edited by Annie Coombes (Ithaca, NY: Forum for African Arts, 2001), p. 217.
 Enwezor (2001), p. 217.
 Yinka Shonibare CBE, “Setting the Stage: Yinka Shonibare in Conversation with Anthony Downey,” Yinka Shonibare MBE, edited by Rachel Kent, exhibition catalogue (Munich: Prestel Publishing, 2008), p. 41.
 Yinka Shonibare CBE as quoted by Kent (2008), p. 14.
Okwui Enwezor, The joke is on you: The work of Yinka Shonibare, Nka, volume 1997, number 6–7 (Summer/Fall 1997), pp. 10–11.
Okwui Enwezor, "Tricking the Mind: The Work of Yinka Shonibare," Dressing Down, edited by Yinka Shonibare (Birmingham: Ikon Gallery, 1999).
Okwui Enwezor, "A conversation with Yinka Shonibare," Looking Both Ways: Art of the Contemporary African Diaspora, edited by Laurie Ann Farrell (New York: Museum of African Art, 2003).
Rachel Kent, editor, Yinka Shonibare MBE, exhibition catalogue (Munich: Prestel Publishing, 2008).
Essay by Dr. Allison Young
Want to join the conversation?
- Was anyone else interested in the disappearance, in Shonibare's recreation, of the male/female aspect to Fragonard's composition? If you look at an image of Shonibare's work from The Tate (also helpful for understanding the discussion above about fabrics), it looks as if we in the audience are standing in for the man who looks up the woman's skirt in Fragonard's painting.
By the way -- seeing larger images of both of these may be helpful:
The Swing (After Fragonard): http://www.tate.org.uk/art/images/work/T/T07/T07952_312645_10.jpg
The Swing: http://hdwallpapers.cat/wallpaper/the_swing_by_fragonard_dress_painting_man_hd-wallpaper-1430010.jpg(21 votes)
- According to my course book, the exclusion of the two men and the audience taking the place of them is an erotic voyeurism brought out from the painting to real life.(3 votes)
- Given that much of this essay discusses the difficulty in distinguishing something that is uniquely "African" or "Dutch" or "pure" of any one nationality (post imperialism)...what is the etymology of the artist's name himself? Yinka Shonibare...is this an ethnically "African" name or does that have dutch or other colonial roots?(5 votes)
- The ethnicity of Yinka is Nigerian. I discovered this by using Duck Duck Go to research it.
Besides the artist, there is a Nigerian model by that name and a Nigerian restaurant. Also, baby name DB's list it as Nigerian.
Nigeria was a British colony.(0 votes)