- The Nineteenth Amendment
- 1920s urbanization and immigration
- The reemergence of the KKK
- Republican ascendancy: politics in the 1920s
- The presidency of Calvin Coolidge
- 1920s consumption
- Movies, radio, and sports in the 1920s
- American culture in the 1920s
- Nativism and fundamentalism in the 1920s
- America in the 1920s
The Gilded Age saw a shift in the U.S. population from rural to urban living, with a majority living in cities by 1920. This era offered economic opportunities for immigrants and internal migrants, and new roles for women in the workforce. However, it also sparked fears among native-born white Protestants, leading to immigration restrictions and a resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan.
Want to join the conversation?
- Why were some immigrants accepted and others were banned? It seems like they all could have been helpful.(6 votes)
- America has a long history, under which a strong and deep current of racism has always flowed.(11 votes)
- It's a little concerning, still knowing that the K.K.K hasn't really vanished. Even now, in 2023, should we still be on guard?(5 votes)
- Yes, but not necessarily where you might expect. We have to be on guard against the racism in our own hearts and minds, The KKK types host and feed that racism and spew it out on the communities around them.(5 votes)
- Is kkk still hunting people to this day(2 votes)
- Why were Mexicans aloud,but not Asians when the more poor didn't like most immigrants at all?(2 votes)
- Because Asians that arrived were usually poor and took the jobs that poor people in the US took, while Mexicans were needed for working on farms. Still doesn't justify it though.(4 votes)
- International Immigrants and internal migrants could black men work the same jobs. Also, could black women work the same jobs as white women?(2 votes)
- While both races could be a teacher or a nurse, etc., segregation caused black women to have little respect, resources, and pay.(4 votes)
- Why did congress pass the Emergency Quota Act in 1921 instead of just being stricter on the K.K.K? I understand that times were different back then, and I know that the safety of those coming to this country in search of a better life and security is important, but wouldn't it be more logical to tackle the problem at its roots?(2 votes)
- This act demonstrated that the KKK weren't the only bigots in America at that time. Restricting immigration was a popular way to get votes in districts and states where the KKK had no support at all. Restricting immigration didn't hurt any voters, so it was a winning proposition for the members of congress. The only organization that lost was the United States of America.(3 votes)
- Why did the scales finally tip?(2 votes)
- After the war in Europe, American industry led the way in the world. Mechanization of agriculture freed land from growing "food for draft animals" and produced surpluses that drove down food prices in cities. Surplus agricultural laborers took up industrial work in cities and ports. People whose lives had been disrupted by war in Europe sought new life in America. There were lots of contributory factors.(3 votes)
- why were the mexicans allowed but the asians. If everyone was allowed it would benefit the United States more?(3 votes)
- Who was considered eligible to be part of the American people in the 1920’s?(2 votes)
- "First class" American people were the descendants of northern european (British, German, Dutch, French)ancestors.
"Second class" american people were the descendants of south european (Italian or greek) or Irish ancestors.
"Third class" american people were the descendants of people of color, many of whom came to American involuntarily.
"Fourth Class" Americans were from Asia.
"Fifth Class" americans were the descendants of people whose ancestors came from Siberia 23,000 years ago.(3 votes)
- Why was the Indian Citizenship Act passed? I find this interesting because this piece of legislation came about when racist ideals were prevalent and the bulk of legislation reflected them. Any help would be greatly appreciated!(2 votes)
- So formally it was passed to reward Indians for their service in the war, however, Coolidge passed it hoping to get Indians to assimilate to white society. Haha! I had the same question and these are my answers from research.(3 votes)
- [Narrator] During the Gilded Age, the population of the United States had started to shift sharply towards living in urban rather than rural environments. In 1900, 1/3 of the American population lived in cities, drawn by the wide availability of factory jobs. But by 1920, the scales finally tipped, and for the first time the majority of people in the United States lived in cities. It was the beginning of a new modern era. We've talked in other videos about the economic opportunities that the cities provided for both international immigrants and internal migrants, like the half a million African Americans who left the South in the years surrounding World War I in search of a better life in the North. Although factory jobs were subject to dangerous working conditions and wages were low, for both immigrants and Southern African Americans, the pay and the standard of living was usually an improvement on their previous circumstances. The transition to life in the modern industrial city also offered new opportunities for women. With the rise of big corporations doing business across time zones and countries, there was an increasing need for clerical workers, like secretaries and typists. White women began to take on these roles. And by the end of the 1920s, about 25% of women worked outside the home. Women also began to fill the ranks in employment categories that were beginning to be defined as female professions, like nursing and teaching. And a growing number of women continued to work even after they were married. These kinds of clerical jobs were generally closed to minority women whose options for work outside the home were limited to domestic service or agricultural labor, although some African American women began to train in segregated institutions for service in segregated institutions, for example, going to black nursing schools in order to work in black hospitals. The mass production techniques of the 1920s also meant that the price of consumer goods dropped so that average people could afford to buy appliances and even cars. People had enough disposable income to go to the theater or to an amusement park or to a speakeasy illegally selling alcohol. After the prim and proper Progressive Era and the trauma of World War I, many people embraced a carefree attitude of self-fulfillment through leisure and consumption or, in other words, having fun and buying stuff. But not everyone was thrilled with this new modern era of diverse city living. During World War I, an emphasis on 100% Americanism squelched dissenters who protested against the draft or questioned U.S. involvement in the war. Then, after the Russian Revolution, labor strikes and a series of bombings in 1919 led to fears that radical communists were threatening the country. These incidents, combined with the flawed racial pseudoscience of the day that cast all people other than those descended from Northern and Western Europeans as less evolved, led to a growing sense among native-born, white Protestants that the country was becoming less and less American. In 1915, the Ku Klux Klan experienced a resurgence in the United States that lasted for about 10 years. Unlike the Reconstruction Era KKK, in this time period, the Klan had large membership numbers in northern and western cities, and they targeted Jews and Catholics, many of whom were recent immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, in addition to African Americans. These fears led to the passage of new immigration restrictions in the 1920s. In 1921, Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act, which limited the number of immigrants allowed from Europe to 350,000, or about a third of pre-World War I levels. Then, in 1924, Congress limited immigration even further with the Immigration Restriction Act. This act set quotas of immigrants who could arrive from each nation. The quotas heavily favored immigrants from Northern and Western Europe and slashed the numbers of Southern and Eastern European immigrants down to as little as 1% of their pre-World War I yearly numbers. Africans from all countries were limited to just 1,000 immigrants per year, and Asians were completely barred from entry. The law did not limit the immigration of Mexicans whom western farmers relied upon for seasonal labor. Interestingly, in 1924, Congress also passed a law establishing that all Native Americans were now U.S. citizens, although they often had difficulty accessing the rights of citizenship from reservations. What do these quotas and efforts at defining the racial makeup of the United States tell us about who was considered eligible to be part of the American people in the 1920s? As we move forward into talking about the Great Depression and World War II, keep thinking about the ways that citizenship is defined and how that definition changes over time.