- The Second Great Awakening - origins and major ideas
- The Second Great Awakening - influence of the Market Revolution
- The Second Great Awakening - reform and religious movements
- The development of an American culture
- Antebellum communal experiments
- The early temperance movement - origins
- The early temperance movement - spread and temporary decline
- Women's labor
- Women's rights and the Seneca Falls Convention
- African Americans in the Early Republic
- The Cotton Kingdom
- The society of the South in the early republic
- Culture and reform in the early nineteenth century
The Temperance Movement aimed to reduce alcohol consumption in America during the early 1800s. It was driven by the Second Great Awakening's moral reforms, the Industrial Revolution's workplace changes, and growing nativism. Influential preacher Lyman Beecher and the American Temperance Society played key roles in its rise.
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- This level of alcohol consumption must have had a very negative effect on productivity. Are there any statistical records that show this impact?(5 votes)
- I was very interested to hear Becca imply that many "artisans" were "drunk while working" and that this then became a problem when these same workers transitioned to wage-labor factory work. I doubt that "drunkenness" was so wide spread. I imagine rather that a "loud minority" of fervent religious persons promoted that story to push an agenda.(17 votes)
- Wow, does anyone know what the average consumption of alcohol was in that period?(6 votes)
- Someone awesome made an entire website over this:https://prohibition.osu.edu/brewing/consumption(7 votes)
- At3:20would xenophobic be more, fitting, for lack of a better word, as xenophobia is an irrational fear of foreigners?(5 votes)
- Nativism is really a combination of anti-Catholic sentiment, xenophobia, and racism. As you'll learn later on, with the resurgence of nativism in the 1920s, America restricted immigration for everyone that was not "WASPs", or "white Anglo-Saxon Protestants".(7 votes)
- It seems that the Second Great Awakening influenced the temperance movement due to its sac-religious effects on humans. However, in attempting to make the work force and family life sober, riots broke out and a woman named Carrie Nation carried an ax into bars to smash the liquor supply. It seems that these riots and destruction of property don't exactly match up with the religious life that they tried to join. Is there something that I missed? Or is it really as crazy as it sounds?(5 votes)
- Okay. So, the world is a crazy place. Perhaps people like Carrie Nation thought that the short term effect of destroying the alcohol would be better than the long term effect of people drinking that alcohol. Hope that helps!(6 votes)
- As employees were losing fingers and perhaps incurring other types of injuries while at the workplace, is there evidence that employers were attempting to make their factories safer for their employees?(4 votes)
- Many employers were more concerned about making money than they were about keeping their workers safe, especially at this time, when workers could be easily replaced by the immigrants pouring into America and desperate for work.(6 votes)
- You can be drunk at WORK? Well the answer is no - no matter where you work! Are you drunk or just HIGH?(4 votes)
- For as long as there have been identifiable intoxicants in existence, people have used them both at work and when at leisure. HIGH is as impairing as drunk. Neither condition belongs in the workplace or on the road.(4 votes)
- When she said that drunk factory workers where losing fingers, I thought that she was saying that they where being punished by the employers. And that got me thinking, where they (the drunkards) ever punished by the owners/ manages of the factories?(2 votes)
- Today there is lots of work safety regulation, to reduce injuries at work. At early 1800's, there was none or very little regulation.
Machinery was primitive and user safety was often not a priority for the designers. If the workers were not careful (maybe because they were drunk, or tired near the end of their 12-hour shift, or for whatever reason), they could lose fingers or in worst case their lives.
See e.g. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupational_safety_and_health#History(5 votes)
- is there any specific lesson for the industrial revolution if so where can i find it. Thanks(3 votes)
- Is there a historical consensus that the use of alcohol among the general population was increasing during this time? If so, what are considered the cause(s) of that increased alcohol consumption?(2 votes)
- Urbanization is often linked to increased consumption of alcohol. This is historically and internationally demonstrable, and has been found in many places. See https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-019-6502-1(2 votes)
- [Voiceover] Hi, this is Becca from Khan Academy, and today I'm going to be talking about temperance. So, what was the temperance movement? In this video, I'll talk a little bit about what temperance was, what its causes were, and how it started to develop in the early-1800s. Temperance was the idea that Americans drank way too much alcohol and needed to temper their consumption. It started as kind of this idea that people should just drink a little bit less, they should drink less whiskey, less rum, less hard alcohol. And then, slowly, it started to take on this kind of prohibitory character. So, again, it was the idea that we just needed to temper our alcohol consumption. And so, how did the temperance movement take root? The temperance movement kinda has three main causes that I like to think about. So, the three main causes were the Second Great Awakening, the Industrial Revolution, and growing nativism and, frankly, racism that started as new immigrants were coming to America in the early-1800s. So, this was all kinda happening right around here, and so I'll talk a little bit more about each of these causes for the temperance movement and how it began. So, I'll start by talking about the Second Great Awakening. So, the Second Great Awakening was this time period in the early-1800s that focused a lot of social reforms around capturing moral good or Christian ideals so Christian ideals, here's the little cross, within our social institutions. So, this happened in education, in prisons, in the first women's rights movement. And so, this was all going on in the 1800s and it was about this idea that we needed to be good and moral people, and we needed our social institutions to reflect that. So, temperance can be seen as a part of the Second Great Awakening. And so, down here, you can kind of see the Second Great Awakening image here. This is the idea that the family was also intimately affected by people being too drunk. Here's the father and he's really drunk and things are kind of going to mayhem. People were just too drunk, and this was tearing apart lots of different institutions, including the family, including education, including the workplace. And so, that's a good transition to talking about the Industrial Revolution. So, the Industrial Revolution was also going on at this time period and people could no longer be drunk on the job, right? So, people used to be artisans. They used to just kind of sit in their home, make their shoes or sew something by hand, and they could be drunk while doing that. But now, if you're kind of in a factory setting, people were getting their fingers cut off by these new machines that were promoted in the Industrial Revolution because they were drunk while trying to operate the machinery. So, with this new industry, workers could no longer be drunk on the job. And so, the final cause is this nativism that people were seeing with new Catholic immigrants. So, there were Catholic immigrants coming into the country. And lots of Protestants were very anti-Catholic and anti-immigration. They decided that the Catholics were drunks. They did drink a lot, but it was definitely this kind of racist sentiment that was percolating within the Protestant community, and this kind of aligned itself with the Whig Party. So, the Whigs became more Protestant; they were really big temperance people. And the Catholics more aligned themselves with the Democrats. The sentiment towards these immigrant populations had this kind of political effect. So, at this time, temperance was starting to become more of a political movement and different social groups were taking this more seriously. There were some state-level organizations. It was just becoming more of a social phenomenon. In 1825, right over here, this really famous preacher, Lyman Beecher, did his six sermons on the sins of alcohol. And so, these sermons in 1825 solidified this idea in the American mind that it was anti-Christian to be a huge drinker, and this idea really took root. This is becoming kind of this larger social phenomenon and there start to be not just more state-level or community-level societies against drinking, you see the first ever national organization. So, the first national temperance society was in 1826, down here, with the American Temperance Society, so the ATS. And I'll talk more about the ATS and the kind of nationalization of the temperance movement in the next video.