- Introduction to Islam
- Beginnings of Islam: The life of Muhammad
- Beginnings of Islam: The Hijra to Medina and the conversion of Mecca
- Contextualization of the development of Islam
- Context of pre-Islamic Arabia
- Key concepts: The origins of Islam
- Focus on context: The origins of Islam
Beginnings of Islam: The life of Muhammad
The early life of Muhammad including his work as a merchant, his marriage to Khadijah, his early revelations and the persecution of early Muslims by his own Quraysh tribe.
Want to join the conversation?
- At1:04Sal talks about how Islam is built on top of the teachings of Christianity and Judaism. Why is it that there is so much animosity between those two groups and Islam in today's world if Islam is accepting of their beliefs?(9 votes)
- I think it is the political differences and alliances influenced and represented by the different religions is why they dont get along(8 votes)
- Did Islam start with Muhammad or was their Islam before him? Also, what was the religion of the Quraysh tribe Muhammad was born into, and was it very different to Muhammad's teachings? Sorry about all the questions but it is such an interesting topic.(3 votes)
- As for your first question, Islam didn't start with prophet Muhammad pbuh. In fact, we believe that whoever followed a prophet at the time that prophet was sent was a Muslim.
So, for example, we believe that whoever followed prophet Moses pbuh at the time he was sent was a Muslim. We also believe that whoever followed Jesus christ pbuh at his time also was a Muslim, and so on. So, we believe that the religion revealed since the beginning of humanity is Islam. In fact, Allah SWT says in the Holy Qur'an "Indeed, the religion in the sight of Allah is Islam (3:19)". So, we believe that it's just that the laws were different for different people at different times because this is what suited this specific type of people then, but the religion is still Islam (so the religion of Moses, Jesus, etc (peace be upon them all) is, in our belief, Islam).
As for your second question, most of Quraysh were pagans. They did, however, believe in Allah SWT (God), but they believed that He was too holy and thus they can't talk to Him because of their sins. So, they tried to reach Him through their idols and they associated these idols with Him. And yes, it was absolutely different from what the prophet Muhammad pbuh taught, as Islam is based on the belief of one God and one God only (Allah SWT). Quraysh believed in many gods and not just one. However, most of the teachings of Islam (especially morals and so on) weren't very different from what the Arabs already know. In fact, the prophet pbuh said: "I was only sent to perfect the moral character." This is because the Arabs already had honesty, generosity, chivalry, bravery, etc as traits in their characters, so it wasn't that new to them.
I hope this answers your questions.(4 votes)
- okay my question is that when they was talking about Muhammad and when he was born but after that they started talking about his parents and when they died but they didn't say how how they died?(4 votes)
- They both became ill and died, his father, Abdullah died before his birth, and his mother, Aminah, died when he was a child.(2 votes)
- Why would Christian king of the Axum kingdom protect Muhammad(PBUH) and the other Muslims? Wouldn't an uprising new religion threaten his kingdom and his rule too?(2 votes)
- Muhammad and the early Muslims were the ones who sought refuge in the Axumite domain. Indeed, Islam was a new arrival on the scene at this point and likely was not even initially perceived as a religion to the king of Axum. Nevertheless, the doctrines of Islam are quite similar to Christianity (in this case the Coptic branch). In fact, when the Axumite king spoke to Ja'far (the acting leader of the exiled Muslims) regarding the Muslims' view of Jesus, Ja'far replied that they beheld Jesus to be "God's servant, His prophet, His spirit, and His word which He cast upon the virgin Mary". The Christian king of Axum then declared that Jesus was indeed no more than what he had said.
More information here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Migration_to_Abyssinia(5 votes)
- Why do people keep writing"(PBUH)" after Muhammad's name? (I'm not a Muslim, so if this is a Islam thing I don't know about, please be patient.)(3 votes)
- I welcome corrections/ additions, but I think it stands for "Peace be upon him" and is an expression of respect.(2 votes)
- how is that ladies was able to ask men to marry them?(3 votes)
- In Islam, as the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) declared, women were equal to men. So women were free to ask a man to marry them.(2 votes)
- Was there much contact between the Ancient Muslims and other societies in Africa. Such as the Mali or Ghana or Swahili? If so what sort?(3 votes)
- As the Middle East was at a crossroads between Asia, Europe, and Africa, there was presumably much interaction, especially when Islam became militant. For example, in the Horn of Africa, Axum/Aksum slowly fell apart and Ethiopia, which claimed its reputation from Solomonic kings (and still followed Christianity) was landlocked, as by then (A few hundred years later) the coast of the horn of Africa (mainly Somalia and some of modern-day Ethiopia) was Islamic. This process of Islam spreading through Trade was common throughout the entire Indian Ocean, whether to the Maldives, Malaysia, and even the area which speaks Swahili. Islam spread as far as Madagascar and Mozambique (using modern political entities, weren't called this during the mid. ages). My knowledge is that, later, the Abbasid Caliphate even imported slaves from the modern-day coast of Tanzania (culminating in the Zanj Rebellion). Mali/Ghana and West Africa slowly became Muslim as well, as North Africa started interacting with trade (gold-salt) with West Africa. Ghana had a less friendly relationship, as they got invaded by the Almoravids and other Muslim factions several times (led to decline). Mali, on the other hand, adopted Islam. And so, by the end of the 14th century, Islam had spread across Africa, Anatolia, and Asia via a complex arrangement of trade, diplomacy, and warfare. Hope this helps, and this is just the tip of the iceberg in a complex relationship between the Muslims and the rest of the world.(1 vote)
- At2:55why is Mecca considered the religious center of that religion?(1 vote)
- We Muslims believe that Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) And his son Ismael (Ishmael) built the Kaaba (The black box house in Mecca). It was built with one special stone, The Black Stone, which was sent from heaven to Abraham. And we also believe that above the Kaaba is the Angel's Kaaba. Where (self explanatory) Angels pray. Please keep in mind that the Kaaba is not what we are worshipping. Quote on quote from: https://www.google.com/search?q=why+do+muslims+pray+to+the+kaaba&oq=why+do+muslims+pray+to+the+kaaba&aqs=chrome..69i57.8102j0j4&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8 :: "Muslims do not worship the Kaaba, but it is Islam's most sacred site because it represents the metaphorical house of God and the oneness of God in Islam."(3 votes)
- Can some one explain way Muslims view Jesus as a prophet and why they believe they should follow the customs of Muhammad? I don't really understand to much of the information I have studied about this particular religion.(1 vote)
- The prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was born in what is commonly known in the West as "the 6th Century". The religious environment of Arabia at that time included Nestorian Christianity, Judaism and Arabian Folk Religions. When Muhammad (PBUH) received the revelation that is Islam, it came with respect for the Jewish and Christian foundations of religion and these two religions' abhorrence of idolatry (which was common to the folk religions). The revelation that is Islam is built on the same foundations as Christianity and Judaism, accepting all of the prophets of both religions. Muhammad (PBUH) as the recipient of the most recent revelation is considered the most accurate of these. In Islam, Jesus (known as Isa) is highly respected and revered. In Islam, the errors of Nestorian Christianity, are refuted. To learn what these errors are, look u Nestorianism, and compare it to what you understand of Christianity.(2 votes)
- Who was Muhammad's wife?(1 vote)
- His first wife was Kadijya bint Kuwailid. After 25 years of marriage, she died. After that, Muhammad (PBUH) married 10 more times. He always married widows or divorced women (with the exception of Aisha, his fourth wife).(2 votes)
- [Teacher] I'm now going to give an overview on the beginnings of Islam. And regardless of whether you are a part of an Islamic culture, you are a practicing Muslim, or you believe in the Islamic traditions, it's valuable to learn about the beginnings of Islam because, today, nearly one-fourth of the world's population either is a practicing Muslim or has grown up in an Islamic tradition. Now, the beginnings of Islam really are centered on the life and the revelations of the Muslim prophet, Muhammad. Now, the term, Islam, means surrender and, as we'll see, a lot of the revelations of Muhammad are about surrendering to God, about the oneness of God, about not worshiping idols. And to put Muhammad in perspective, on a timeline, I have other significant biblical figures, here, and these are important not just to get a reference towards Christianity and Judaism, but because, according to Islamic tradition, Islam is built on top of the teachings of Abraham, or the teachings of Moses and the Torah, and the teachings of Jesus. Muslims believe that the Quran is the Final Testament, so to speak. To get some context, Muhammad was born is 6th Century Arabia, and 6th Century Arabia was an interesting place. In many other videos, we've talked about various empires around the Mediterranean, around the Mesopotamia and Persia. And even on this map, in the time of Muhammad, you see significant empires, the Byzantine Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire. You have Sasanid Persia. But Arabia was never really consolidated, or ruled, by a formal, or most of Arabia, by a formal government or a formal empire. The rule of law in most of Arabia, and the world in which Muhammad was born into, was a tribal world where you were protected by your tribe and it was really the laws of vendetta and revenge that kept certain things in check, but also would lead to a lot of wars and a lot of violence. And within Arabia, there were many folks who are Bedouins, who were nomadic people, who traveled through the desert allowing their livestock to graze on whatever suitable land they found, but you also had settled people in places like Mecca. You had people who'd settled and started agriculture around oases. Remember, most of the Arabian Peninsula is really desert. And, Muhammad was born into a fairly, or a very prominent family in Mecca. He was born to the Quraysh tribe, and the Quraysh tribe was essentially in control of Mecca, and Mecca was a very powerful city to control because it was a religious center for the region. This is the Kaaba, which exists today, and is the center of Islamic worship. And, at the time, it housed hundreds of idols which were important to the various tribes and people of Arabia at the time. And so, you can imagine as they did the pilgrimage towards Mecca to worship their idols, it also benefited the economy of Mecca in a significant way. And not only was Muhammad born into this powerful tribe, he was born into one of the most powerful clans within that tribe, and within one of the most powerful houses within that clan. But even though he was born into this very powerful family, clan, and tribe, his early life was quite difficult. His father died right before he was born. His mother dies at the age of six years old, and, then, his grandfather, who then takes custody of him, and by most accounts, he doesn't get a lot of privileges. When you're a member of a tribe, you're essentially orphaned. The tribe is doing, essentially, just the base necessities to keep you alive. But then his grandfather dies when he is eight years old, and he becomes, he goes under the custody of his uncle, Abu Talib. Now, as he grows older, he does learn a skill. He essentially becomes a merchant. He goes on trading journeys with his uncle, Abu Talib, to places like Syria. And, as he does that, according to Islamic tradition, he gets a very favorable reputation. He gets these titles like, Al-Amin, the trustworthy one, or Al-Sadiq, the truthful. Now, he continues doing that until the age of 25. At 25 years old, something very interesting happens. A very wealthy widow, arguably one of the wealthiest people in all of Mecca, who runs a vast trading enterprise, Khadija, who is 40 years old, she employs Muhammad and, apparently, is so impressed by his honesty, by his ability to be trustworthy, that she propose to him, and, remember, she's 40. This would be her third marriage, and he is 25, and he accepts the proposal. Now, this is significant because as we'll see in this video and the next, Khadija is the first one to follow Muhammad, or believe in Muhammad's revelations. So, he continues to work with his wife, arguably work for his wife, and, then, in 610, he's now 40 years old, he is praying in a cave on the outskirts of Mecca, and while he's praying, he is purported to get his first revelation from God, according to Islamic traditions. And that first revelation, and this is the mountain where it is purported to happen, the Mountain of Light, Jabal an-Nour. This is the cave, Cave Hira. The first revelation is, "Proclaim, in the name of thy Lord "and Cherisher, Who created man, "out of a clot of congealed blood. "Proclaim, and thy Lord is most bountiful, "who taught by the pen, "taught man that which he knew not." And so Muhammad, according to Islamic accounts, he's kind of very concerned by this. He does not view himself as a preacher. He does not view himself as someone who should be a prophet, and he goes to Khadija, and he's worried, and Khadija takes him to her Christian cousin, who reassures Muhammad, who tells Muhammad that he believes that he is a prophet in the tradition of Abraham and Moses. And so, that, to some degree, makes Muhammad feel a little bit better, and he doesn't have some revelations for awhile, and he becomes concerned. But then, he eventually starts to have many, many revelations, but he keeps it to himself, at first. But, roughly three years later, he starts to publicly preach these revelations. So, these revelations which really talk about the oneness of God. There's no God but God. It's very appealing especially to some of the economically lower strata, but you could also imagine, it's very, very threatening to the establishment of Mecca. You have to remember, the establishment of Mecca, it revolves around the worship of these idols, and now you have this guy of the Quraysh tribe, the tribe that worships Hubal, the tribe that is in charge of Mecca, that benefits from all these people worshiping these various idols. He's know saying that, "Idol worship is a sin." He's saying that there's not God but God, that all of these idols are false idols. And so, the Quraysh tribe, Muhammad's own tribe, begins to significantly persecute the early Muslims. So much so, that many of the early Muslims have to migrate from Mecca to the Kingdom of Axum, which was ruled by a Christian king, who protects them the Quraysh tribe. This is now modern-day Ethopia, or Eritrea. And so, things are not going well for these early Muslims. They're being targeted by the Quraysh tribe. They're being killed. They're being tortured. And then, things get even worse for Muhammad. In 619, you have the death of his wife, Khadija. And, just to get a sense of how powerful Khadija was to Muhammad, we have this quote that we get from the Hadith, which are accounts of Muhammad's life and sayings, and it tell us, "God Almighty never granted me anyone better "in this life than her. "She accepted me when people rejected me, "she believed in me when people doubted me, "she shared her wealth with me when people deprived me, "and God granted me children only through her." This is, once again, according to the sayings or the life of Muhammad as accounted for by one of the Hadith. And not only did his wife, who up to that time was his only wife, die and was a significant figure, but in that same year, his uncle also dies. So, you can imagine this year, 619, often referred to as the Year of Sorrows, it's a fairly low point for Muhammad. He's been preaching for about, or he's been getting these revelations and preaching for around nine years, now, and things are not looking good.