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"When the Song dynasty came into power in 960, it had to accept a geopolitical system in which no state dominated all its neighbors. The Song continually had to negotiate power with the alien states on its borders. (...)
This fear of alien regimes, particularly of the Liao and Xi Xia to the north, impeded the ability of the Han Chinese to recognize the regional achievements of these peoples. The “barbarians” were viewed as uncivilized intruders who disturbed the proper course of history, which meant Chinese history exclusively--the only history considered worthy of being investigated and recorded."