Main content

### Course: 7th grade (Illustrative Mathematics) > Unit 5

Lesson 6: Lesson 6: Subtracting rational numbers- Graphing negative number addition and subtraction expressions
- Interpreting numeric expressions example
- Interpret negative number addition and subtraction expressions
- Adding & subtracting negative fractions
- Absolute value as distance between numbers
- Absolute value to find distance
- Adding & subtracting rational numbers

© 2024 Khan AcademyTerms of usePrivacy PolicyCookie Notice

# Absolute value as distance between numbers

In this video, we think about what |a-b| really means, and we verify that |a-b| = |b-a| by looking at an example.

## Want to join the conversation?

- why 3-(-2) = 5? Could you please give me a example in real world to explain this equation?(23 votes)
- Hi Acha Zeng,

Tip to remember when subtracting integers:

( + ) - ( + ) changes to ( + ) + ( + ) Ex: (3)-(2) = (3) + (-2)

( + ) - ( - ) changes to ( + ) + ( + ) Ex: (5) - (-3) = (5) + (3)

( - ) - ( + ) changes to ( - ) + ( - ) Ex: (-9) - (4)= (-9) + (-4)

( - ) - ( - ) changes to ( - ) + ( + ) Ex: ( -3) - (-1)= ( -3) + ( 1 )

Also check this video out, https://www.khanacademy.org/math/arithmetic/arith-review-negative-numbers/arith-review-sub-neg-intro/v/adding-and-subtracting-negative-number-examples?(62 votes)

- i don't get it how does -5 equal 5(17 votes)
- Absolute value basically measures how far the number is from zero. If you think about a number line, -5 is the same distance away from 0 as 5 is.

Putting an absolute value on something isn't really saying that they are the same number, but it's saying that they are the same distance away from 0.(53 votes)

- Can you help me further understand this concept? I don't really understand how to work it out.(11 votes)
- Every number that are inside the I I becomes positive.

ex)1. I -6 I = I 6 I

2. I -5-2 I = I -7 I = I 7 I(12 votes)

- The practice & exam problems bringing in fractions and decimals is really throwing me off. I looked through the comments, but I don't see any examples that actually address this nor does Sal give any examples.(14 votes)
- With fractions and decimals solving for absolute value is the same process. If I have l 3/4 l and

l -7/6 l being compared then the absolute value of 7/6 is greater.(5 votes)

- Is there a special name for this phenomenon of a formula |a-b| = |b-a|?(8 votes)
- This phenomenon is called commutativity.

So the property |a-b| = |b-a| means that the distance between two numbers is a commutative operation.(14 votes)

- this is not really a question but how does he draw straight lines perfectly??(7 votes)
- I think he uses a tool...😔(1 vote)

- i still don't get how the absolute value of a-b is the same as the absolute value of b-a. Please help.(1 vote)
- Consider the following:

You have one value, a, that is 3; so a = 3

You also have another, b, that is 7; so b = 7

So a - b = 3 - 7= -4, while b - a = 7 - 3 = 4

When you take the absolute value of either equation (|a - b| or |b - a|), you can see that both result in an answer of 4, as the negative result of a - b (-4) still has a positive absolute value (4).

Let me know if this clarifies, or if you have any further questions!(10 votes)

- Does it always have to be number lines?

Does anyone know of an alternative way to do this?

Also, can anyone properly explain this to me?

Thank You(4 votes)- No, it does not always have to be on a number line; this is showing you how to do this if you don't have a number line. Since you know you can subtract the number further on the left on the number line from the number on the right to find the distance between, a number line is easy. However, if you have two variables without a number line, you can't know which is greater, so you can't subtract without using this strategy. Since |a-b| = |b-a|, as long as we find the absolute value of the answer, we can subtract in any order.(6 votes)

- shouldn't A come before B?(4 votes)
- Only if we are talking about the alphabet. If we are talking about math (algebra) any value can be represented by any letter and that letter can be placed anywhere in the equation. Usually in algebra the letters X and Y are used, but A and B can be used just the same. In this case B has a greater value than A and and A must be subtracted from B

I hope this helps!(2 votes)

- is it possible to have a negative distance?(3 votes)
- If it's an absolute value, then it can never be negative. This is because the absolute value does not consider what direction it goes in, it only counts distance.(3 votes)

## Video transcript

- [Voiceover] Let's say
that I have two numbers on a number line. So let me draw a little quick number line right over here. The two numbers on my number line that I care about, the
number a and the number represented by b here. The way I've drawn it, b is to the right of a on our number line, and by our convention, b is going to be greater than a. So if I were to figure out the distance between a and b, what
is this distance going from a, I want to draw
a straight line here, this distance going from a to b, so this distance right over there, how would I figure it out? Well I could just take the larger of these two numbers,
which is going to be b, and then subtract out the smaller. So I subtract out a, and I'll be left with this distance. This will give me a positive value. When I want a distance, I just think in terms of a positive value. How far apart are these two things? But I was only able to
know to do b minus a because I knew that b was greater than a. This was going to give
me a positive value. What if I knew that a was greater than b? Well then I would do it
the other way around. So let me draw that again. Let me draw another number
line right over here. In this world, in this world, I'm going to make a greater than b. This is b, that is a, and if I wanted to calculate the distance between b and a here, well now I would take
the larger of the two, a, remember I want the
positive distance here, and then I would subtract out the smaller. I would do a minus b. Well so here I did b minus a, here I did a minus b, but what if I didn't know
which one was greater? If I didn't know whether
b or a was greater, what could I do? Well what you could do is just take either a minus b or b minus a and take the absolute value. If you do that, it doesn't matter if you take b minus a or a minus b. It turns out that regardless of whether a is greater than b, or b is greater than a, or they're equivalent,
that the absolute value of a minus b is equivalent
to the absolute value of b minus a, and this is equivalent, either of these
expressions is the distance between these numbers. I encourage you to play
around with the negatives to see if you can factor
out some negatives and think about the absolute value. It will actually make a lot
of sense why this is true. In another video, I might
do a little bit more of a rigorous justification for it. But I think the important thing for this video is to see that this is actually true. So let's say we're in a world, let's get a number line out, and let's look at some examples. So let's say that we want to figure out the distance between, between, let's say negative two, the distance between negative two and positive three. So we can look at the number line and figure out what that distance is. To go from negative two to positive three, or the distance between them, we see is one, two, three, four, five. Actually, let me draw
a straighter line here. This distance right over here, this distance right over here is equal to five. You see it right over here. One, two, three, four, five. Or you'd have to go five backwards to go from three to negative two. But let's see that what I just wrote actually applies right over here. So if we took negative two to be our a and three to be our b, then we could write this as the absolute value of negative two minus three, what is this going to be equal to? Well this is going to be equal to negative two minus
three is negative five, so it's the absolute
value of negative five. So this indeed equals five. So notice I subtracted the larger number from the smaller number. I got a negative value, but then I took the absolute value of it. That gave me the actual distance between these two numbers. Now what if I did it the other way around? What if I took three minus negative two? So it's going to be the absolute value of three, let me do it in the blue color, the absolute value of three minus, and in parentheses I'll
write the negative two. Negative two. Now if you subtract a smaller number from a larger number, you should get a positive value. So the absolute value sign
here is just kind of extra. You don't really need it, unless to verify that that's true. This is going to be
three minus negative two. That's the same thing as three plus positive two, or five. So this is just going
to be the absolute value of five, which of
course, is equal to five. So hopefully this makes you feel good that if you want the distance between two numbers, you subtract one from the other, and it doesn't matter which order you do it. You could subtract
three from negative two, or negative two from three, be careful with the negative symbols here, and then take the absolute value, and then that is going to give you the distance between these two numbers. This is super important because later in your mathematical careers, you're going to see a math professor just say, oh, you know,
I care about the distance between two variables, you know, a and b, so the distance is a minus b, and then later they
might write it like this. And then to realize that these are actually the same thing, and these are gonna give the same value, and they represent the distance between these numbers.