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## Calculus, all content (2017 edition)

### Course: Calculus, all content (2017 edition)>Unit 2

Lesson 8: Differentiability

# Differentiability at a point (old)

An older video where Sal finds the points on the graph of a function where the function isn't differentiable. Created by Sal Khan.

## Want to join the conversation?

• this video feels out of place...what does differentiable mean? •   A function is differentiable at a point when there's a defined derivative at that point. This means that the slope of the tangent line of the points from the left is approaching the same value as the slope of the tangent of the points from the right.

Still confused?
In all the examples he gave, the points where the functions weren't differentiable were where the function changed course. This means the speed it was going at completely changed. From the left side of the point, the function was going at one speed, but from the right side of the point, the function was going at a different speed. Since the function had different speeds from both sides, there was no defined speed at the point where the change happened. The function isn't differentiable at the point where the change happens.

I hope this explains what differentiable means well!
• can this be proven mathematically? Like Can you write an equations showing how certain point will not be able to find a derivative? • So, essentially, a function is not differentiable at points of discontinuity? • Right. A differentiable function is always continuous, but the inverse is not necessarily true. A derivative is a shared value of 2 limits (in the definition: the limit for h>0 and h<0), and this is a point about limits that you may already know that answers your question. At points of discontinuity of f(x) the derivative, which is a shared value of 2 limits (the derivative from the right and the derivative from the left) can only be calculated from one side (at best). So there can't be a shared value. Exactly like what happens with a (bounded from above) continuous function on, for example, [0,1[ : The left limit in x=1 will exist, but the limit won't, because you can't "approach it" from the right, and by consequence you can't check that value.

You should also check this out: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weierstrass_function. This function is continuous everywhere, but differentiable nowhere.
• Dumb question , but It's really confusing me. How did sal find that the slope was (3.5) at . • My friend and I were discussing about an interesting yet confusing question.
The question is that If we divide the function in the graph into 3parts: y1(x<= -2), y2( -2<x<=3), and y3(x>3), are the points (-2,-3) and (3, 4.5 approximately) still not differentiable?
I voted for still not but my friend voted for that they are differentiable in this occasion.
What would be the legitimate answer? • I can get the idea about differentiability from this video. However, it seems there isn't any video to explain this problem clearer. How can we apply it in real situation? • Classic example: imagine someone is running in a straight line, with variable speed. We construct a function: the x-axis represents time, and the y-value represents his displacement (the distance away from the starting point). If you want to know his exact speed at a given moment (dx/dt, the ratio of the change in displacement and the change in time as the change in time approaches zero), you calculate the (first) derivative of this function at a given time t.
• SUPPOSE, somehow we got a tangent line that is vertical, i.e. of type x=k, where k is some constant. Then will the value of derivative be defined there? Also, in REALITY, is there any such possible case? • So when you say when a function is not differentiable, is it the same thing as saying where the graph is not continuous? • So is differentiability essentially continuity of the derivative of a function? • The derivative of a function need not be continuous. For instance, the function `ƒ: R → R` defined by `ƒ(x) = x²sin(1/x)` when `x ≠ 0` and `ƒ(0) = 0`, is differentiable on all of `R`. In particular, `ƒ` is differentiable at `0` (in fact, `ƒ'(0) = 0`), but the derivative `ƒ'` of `ƒ` is not continuous at `0`.
However, if we consider functions of a complex variable, this is indeed the case. More precisely, if a function `ƒ` is complex differentiable on an open subset `Ω` of the complex plane, we say that `ƒ` is holomorphic on `Ω`. If `ƒ` is such a function, then `ƒ` has derivatives of all orders on `Ω`! In particular, the derivative `ƒ'` of `ƒ` is continuous on `Ω`. This is in contrast to the real case, and we see that the notion of being holomorphic is stronger than the notion of being real differentiable. 