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## Pre-algebra

### Course: Pre-algebra > Unit 1

Lesson 1: Factors and multiples# Factors and multiples

CCSS.Math:

Learn about factors and multiples and how they relate to each other.

## Factors

Factors are whole numbers that can evenly divide another number.

### Picturing factors

Factors give us a way to break down a number into smaller pieces. We can arrange dots into equal sized groups to help us picture the factors of 12.

12 dots can be arranged in start color #01d1c1, 1, end color #01d1c1 row with start color #01d1c1, 12, end color #01d1c1 dots.

start color #01d1c1, 1, times, 12, end color #01d1c1, equals, 12

12 dots can also be arranged in start color #aa87ff, 2, end color #aa87ff rows with start color #aa87ff, 6, end color #aa87ff dots per row.

start color #aa87ff, 2, times, 6, end color #aa87ff, equals, 12

start color #01d1c1, 1, times, 12, end color #01d1c1, equals, 12

12 dots can also be arranged in start color #aa87ff, 2, end color #aa87ff rows with start color #aa87ff, 6, end color #aa87ff dots per row.

start color #aa87ff, 2, times, 6, end color #aa87ff, equals, 12

Or, we can arrange 12 dots in start color #f9685d, 3, end color #f9685d rows with start color #f9685d, 4, end color #f9685d dots in each row.

start color #f9685d, 3, times, 4, end color #f9685d, equals, 12

start color #f9685d, 3, times, 4, end color #f9685d, equals, 12

Once we figure out all of the ways that 12 dots can be arranged, we can look at the number of rows and number of dots in each row to find the factors of 12.

start color #01d1c1, 1, end color #01d1c1, start color #01d1c1, 12, end color #01d1c1, start color #aa87ff, 2, end color #aa87ff, start color #aa87ff, 6, end color #aa87ff, start color #f9685d, 3, end color #f9685d, and start color #f9685d, 4, end color #f9685d are all factors of 12.

We can make 12 with a row of start color #1fab54, 5, end color #1fab54 and a row of start color #e07d10, 7, end color #e07d10. So are start color #1fab54, 5, end color #1fab54 and start color #e07d10, 7, end color #e07d10 factors of 12?

No. start color #1fab54, 5, end color #1fab54 and start color #e07d10, 7, end color #e07d10 are not factors because the dots are not divided into equal sized groups.

### Finding factors without pictures

We can find the factors for 16 without drawing dots by thinking about numbers that will divide into 16 evenly.

start color #11accd, 1, end color #11accd is a factor of 16 because start color #11accd, 1, end color #11accd can be divided into 16 with no remainder.

16, divided by, start color #11accd, 1, end color #11accd, equals, start color #11accd, 16, end color #11accd

The quotient, which is start color #11accd, 16, end color #11accd, comma is also a factor of 16.

16, divided by, start color #11accd, 1, end color #11accd, equals, start color #11accd, 16, end color #11accd

The quotient, which is start color #11accd, 16, end color #11accd, comma is also a factor of 16.

start color #1fab54, 2, end color #1fab54 is a factor of 16 because start color #1fab54, 2, end color #1fab54 can be divided into 16 with no remainder.

16, divided by, start color #1fab54, 2, end color #1fab54, equals, start color #1fab54, 8, end color #1fab54

The quotient, which is start color #1fab54, 8, end color #1fab54, is also a factor of 16.

16, divided by, start color #1fab54, 2, end color #1fab54, equals, start color #1fab54, 8, end color #1fab54

The quotient, which is start color #1fab54, 8, end color #1fab54, is also a factor of 16.

start color #7854ab, 4, end color #7854ab is a factor of 16 because start color #7854ab, 4, end color #7854ab can be divided into 16 with no remainder.

16, divided by, start color #7854ab, 4, end color #7854ab, equals, start color #7854ab, 4, end color #7854ab

In this case the quotient is start color #7854ab, 4, end color #7854ab, which we have already discovered is a factor of 16.

16, divided by, start color #7854ab, 4, end color #7854ab, equals, start color #7854ab, 4, end color #7854ab

In this case the quotient is start color #7854ab, 4, end color #7854ab, which we have already discovered is a factor of 16.

The factors of 16 are start color #11accd, 1, comma, 16, end color #11accd, start color #1fab54, 2, comma, 8, end color #1fab54, comma and start color #7854ab, 4, end color #7854ab.

Numbers like 3 and 5 are not factors of 16 because they cannot be divided evenly into 16.

## Factor hints

Every number has 1 as a factor.

1 is a factor of 10.

1 is a factor of 364.

1 is a factor of 5, comma, 787.

1 is a factor of 364.

1 is a factor of 5, comma, 787.

Every number has itself as a factor.

41 is a factor of 41.

128 is a factor of 128.

4, comma, 379 is a factor of 4, comma, 379.

128 is a factor of 128.

4, comma, 379 is a factor of 4, comma, 379.

## Factor pairs

Two numbers that we multiply together to get a certain product are called factor pairs. To get the product of 8, we can multiply start color #7854ab, 1, end color #7854ab times start color #7854ab, 8, end color #7854ab and start color #1fab54, 2, end color #1fab54 times start color #1fab54, 4, end color #1fab54. So the factor pairs for 8 are start color #7854ab, 1, end color #7854ab and start color #7854ab, 8, end color #7854ab and start color #1fab54, 2, end color #1fab54 and start color #1fab54, 4, end color #1fab54.

Arranging dots in equal sized groups helps us to see that factors always come in pairs. One factor in the factor pair is the number of rows. The other factor in the factor pair is the number of dots in each row.

Let's find the factor pairs of 20. Remember, we are looking for two whole numbers that we can multiply together to get 20.

We'll start with start color #11accd, 1, end color #11accd because we know that start color #11accd, 1, end color #11accd is a factor for every number.
We multiply start color #11accd, 1, end color #11accd, times, start color #11accd, 20, end color #11accd, to get 20, so start color #11accd, 20, end color #11accd is also a factor. We can list these factors as the outside ends of a list, leaving room in the middle for additional factors.

start color #11accd, 1, end color #11accd | start color #11accd, 20, end color #11accd |

Now we check to see whether the next counting number, 2, is a factor.

Is there a whole number we can multiply by start color #1fab54, 2, end color #1fab54 to get 20? Yes. start color #1fab54, 2, end color #1fab54, times, start color #1fab54, 10, end color #1fab54, equals, 20. So start color #1fab54, 2, end color #1fab54 and start color #1fab54, 10, end color #1fab54 are another factor pair.

start color #11accd, 1, end color #11accd | start color #1fab54, 2, end color #1fab54 | start color #1fab54, 10, end color #1fab54 | start color #11accd, 20, end color #11accd |

The next counting number is 3. Is there a whole number we can multiply by 3 to get 20? No. So 3 is not a factor of 20.

Can we multiply start color #e84d39, 4, end color #e84d39 by a whole number to get 20? Yes. start color #e84d39, 4, end color #e84d39, times, start color #e84d39, 5, end color #e84d39, equals, 20. So start color #e84d39, 4, end color #e84d39 and start color #e84d39, 5, end color #e84d39 are a factor pair.

start color #11accd, 1, end color #11accd | start color #1fab54, 2, end color #1fab54 | start color #e84d39, 4, end color #e84d39 | start color #e84d39, 5, end color #e84d39 | start color #1fab54, 10, end color #1fab54 | start color #11accd, 20, end color #11accd |

The next counting number is 5. Since 5 already appears on the list, we now have found all of the factors pairs for 20.

## Multiples

Multiples are numbers that result when we multiply one whole number by another whole number. The first four multiples of start color #6495ed, 3, end color #6495ed are 3, comma, 6, comma, 9, and 12 because:

start color #6495ed, 3, end color #6495ed, times, 1, equals, 3

start color #6495ed, 3, end color #6495ed, times, 2, equals, 6

start color #6495ed, 3, end color #6495ed, times, 3, equals, 9

start color #6495ed, 3, end color #6495ed, times, 4, equals, 12

start color #6495ed, 3, end color #6495ed, times, 2, equals, 6

start color #6495ed, 3, end color #6495ed, times, 3, equals, 9

start color #6495ed, 3, end color #6495ed, times, 4, equals, 12

Some other multiples of start color #6495ed, 3, end color #6495ed are 15, comma, 30 and 300.

start color #6495ed, 3, end color #6495ed, times, 5, equals, 15

start color #6495ed, 3, end color #6495ed, times, 10, equals, 30

start color #6495ed, 3, end color #6495ed, times, 100, equals, 300

start color #6495ed, 3, end color #6495ed, times, 10, equals, 30

start color #6495ed, 3, end color #6495ed, times, 100, equals, 300

We can never list all of the multiples of a number. In our example, 3 could be multiplied by an infinite number of numbers to find new multiples.

### Practice problems

The first multiple of any number is the number itself.

7, times, 1, equals, 7.

7, times, 1, equals, 7.

The list shows multiples of 4.

The list shows multiples of 8.

### Picturing multiples

The following pictures show multiples of 4.

4, times, 1, equals, 4

4, times, 2, equals, 8

4, times, 3, equals, 12

The next box will include the next multiple of 4.

### How do factors and multiples relate?

start color #e07d10, 4, end color #e07d10 and start color #1fab54, 7, end color #1fab54 are both

**factors**of start color #11accd, 28, end color #11accd because they both divide evenly into start color #11accd, 28, end color #11accd.start color #11accd, 28, end color #11accd is a

**multiple**of start color #e07d10, 4, end color #e07d10, comma and it is also a**multiple**of start color #1fab54, 7, end color #1fab54.## Practice with factors and multiples

We know that 9, times, 6, equals, 54

## Factors and multiples challenge

Factors and multiples are used when solving problems about the side lengths and areas of rectangles.

A rectangle has an area of 50 square cm.

Mr. Trimble is putting out 36 chocolate chip cookies for the students in his art club.

## Want to join the conversation?

- i dont understand why the multiples of 10 are not 2,5 and why the answer is 10,30,40? can you please explain(30 votes)
- The multiples are what it can create. For example, 10x2=20, 10x3=30

and the factors are what its made of. For example 10=5x2(58 votes)

- Don't you get something if you try a lot and with some mistakes ?(24 votes)
- Absolutely! Trying hard and making mistakes is one of the ways you learn. You wouldn't learn much if you just watch the video.(39 votes)

- how are you supposed to anwser the question above .It doesn't make sense.(9 votes)
- Sometimes if a question doesn't make sense, it helps to click on clues or hints that might be available.

Clicking on those will mean you won't get that question correct, but at least the hints will help you understand the question (and the answer) next time it comes up.(21 votes)

- Confuseing ;l is it or is it easy for u guys :c(7 votes)
- hey i know this comment is old, but don't give up. I'm an 11th grader starting from the bottom of math and working my way back up because my foundation wasn't strong. Don't rush math, because even if you can move on if your foundation isn't strong, it will come back to bite you in the butt.(6 votes)

- What is a factor of 1,000,000 huh?(8 votes)
- 2 is one of them idiot(4 votes)

- If he arranges the cookies in 333 rows, there will be

12

cookies in each row.

If he arranges the cookies in

9

rows, there will be 444 cookies in each row.

Correct(8 votes)- Great Job!! That
*is*the correct answer!!(2 votes)

- What dose it mean by : 3 rows of _ cookies in each row? And, if he arranges in _ rows, there will be 4 cookies in each row?(5 votes)
- He is just stating that if you rearrange the cookies there can either be 3 rows of 4 or 4 rows of 3.(9 votes)

- Is zero a multiple of any number, and why not?(5 votes)
- 0 is not a multiple because [#] x 0 = 0. So, if you do 10 x 0 = 0.(7 votes)

- How do you answer the question on how factors and multiples relate(8 votes)
- is428 = to 45=01q84(1 vote)
- Q=39?

45=1q+84

-84 -84

-39=1q

÷1 ÷1

-39=q

45=1(-39)+84

45=-39+84

45=45(12 votes)