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### Course: Pixar in a Box > Unit 3

Lesson 1: Modeling with subdivision surfaces- Start here!
- Introduction to subdivision surfaces
- Interativo: divisão e média/Interactivo: división y promedia
- 2. Subdivide operation
- Subdivision
- 3. Subdividing your own designs
- Interativo: crie sua própria forma
- 4. Subdivision in 3D
- Interativo: subdivisão em 3D/Interactivo: subdivisión en 3D
- Subdivision in 3D
- Getting to know Alonso Martinez

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# 4. Subdivision in 3D

Now let's think about how subdivision would work in 3D.

## Want to join the conversation?

- May I ask what software does Pixar use for modeling?(8 votes)
- They use Marionette, I believe, however it's Pixar use only, you can't use it unless you're a Pixar employee(7 votes)

- could this be used to create 3d charecters in games(4 votes)
- Kind of. You could technically do it but It would take a long time(2 votes)

- What characters didn't use subdivision and why? Where they too complicated for it to use? Or the opposite?2:13(3 votes)
- In which software we should use to make this 3d modeling? which is software is more easy to use?(3 votes)
- explain any 4 subdivision in 3D modelling(2 votes)
- What is the math formula(2 votes)
- What characters didn't use subdivision and why? Where they too complicated for it to use? Or the opposite?

2:13(1 vote)- I don't think there is a character that didn't but wall-e problably used the least amount of subdivision (b/c he is the closest to a box)

and @2:19any short made before Geri's game would have been made w/o subdivision(3 votes)

- Is there an easier software to use for this that ISNT blender?(2 votes)
- At2:00Alonso says that subdivision was first used to create a character named Geri. How did Pixar animate before this? I know about Mo-Cap, is this a part of the pixar process? Was this how characters/objects were animated before subdivision?(2 votes)
- how are mid points so complicated?(1 vote)

## Video transcript

- So far, in this lesson, we've learned how to model curves in two dimensions. And, now, it's time to go
back to the real problem that we wanna address:
how to model the fun part, characters, using surfaces
in three dimensions. And that is where
subdivision really shines. The same ideas of splitting and averaging still apply
in three dimensions. And that means that
subdivision applies as well. For example, suppose
that I start with a cube. I can look at the cube
from different angles by clicking on the
background and dragging. The splitting step is a little bit more complicated than for curves. In addition to adding new
midpoints of edges, like this one, I also need to add midpoints
of the facets, like this one. Midpoints of facets are computed by averaging all of the coordinates of the control points
surrounding that facet. For instance, this midpoint is computed as the average of these four points. And this one, is the average
of these four points. The averaging step is a
little bit more complicated than the curve case, too. Each point is, again,
repositioned using averaging, but, now, it isn't a straight average. We need to use the weighted
average of all of the points next to the one that we are repositioning. We'll talk more about weighted
averages in the next lesson. And, just like the curves, we can combine split and average into
a subdivide operation. And, if we subdivide it enough times, the shape becomes a smooth surface. Now, let's try this on a doughnut shape. Subdividing once gives me this. Subdividing again gives me that. In practice, we subdivide
as many times as we need to, to create a smooth image. Subdivision was first used to create the character named Geri, from the short film called "Geri's game". Here's Geri's hand before the subdivision. And here it is after subdivision. Since "Geri's game",
we've used subdivision to create practically
all of our characters. We even used subdivision for
things besides characters, like the buildings in "The Incredibles", because subdivision surfaces
are so easy for artists to use. Next up, we have a simplified 3D program for you to play with. Really. Go play! Try anything and everything
you can think of. You can't break it and
you can always restart. Once you start to feel comfortable with how the subdivision
operation behaves, move on and we'll try the final exercise. After that, you can check
out the next lesson, which goes a bit deeper into
the mathematics of subdivision. Go do something awesome!