- Membrane Receptors
- Ligands & receptors
- G Protein Coupled Receptors
- Signal relay pathways
- Cellular mechanism of hormone action
- Response to a signal
- Example of a signal transduction pathway
- Cell signaling in yeast reproduction
- Cell-cell signaling in unicellular organisms
- Signal transduction
Cell signaling in yeast reproduction
Yeast can reproduce sexually through a signaling pathway known as the mating factor pathway. In this process, two haploid yeast cells combine to form a diploid cell. Yeast cells secrete a signal molecule called mating factor that attracts them to their mates. Once the mating factor of one yeast binds to the receptor on another yeast, an outgrowth called a "shmoo" forms, which allows the yeast cells to fuse together.
Want to join the conversation?
- Does yeast have X and Y chromosomes, or do they have different chromosomes to distinguish between a and alpha?(3 votes)
- The distinguishing factor here is not in the type of chromosomes, but rather in the sets of genes on them being transcribed. The a cells produce the a-factor while the alpha cells produce the alpha factor (the factors are known as mating pheromones).
Basically, which gene is expressed and which is repressed is the deciding 'factor'. But if you want to understand the genetics behind the same, you can refer the following literature on the MAT locus, which 'decides' the a/alpha nature and in turn, the sexual behavior of haploid yeasts.
- So when a diploid splits into haploids how do each of the four haploids (a and Alpha) all have 8 pairs when it only started out with 16? where do the 8 other pairs come from?(3 votes)
- DNA replication (copying) happens right before meiosis so that there are twice as many chromosomes to divide among the four daughter cells. Also, the chromosomes in the daughter cells shouldn't be called "pairs" even though they are in a number that is divisible by two. The term pair is used for homologous chromosomes, as in the one chromosome that came from the "dad" and the matching chromosome that came from "mom." In the haploid, there is only one of each chromosome.(5 votes)
- How or through which microscope the pictures of the yeast shown in the video are obtained.........?(3 votes)
- The first is from DIC microscopy and the second might be too but I'm not 100% sure :)(3 votes)
- why not just make it type a & b instead of type a & alpha? Whats the history behind this?(4 votes)
- a cells produce ‘a-factor’, a mating pheromone which signals the presence of a cell to neighboring α cells. a cells respond to α-factor, the α cell mating pheromone. α cells produce α-factor, and respond to a-factor.(0 votes)
- At7:40, Sal mentioned that 2 sibling yeast cells can mate with each other. But in the "Cell-Cell Signaling in Unicellular Organisms", It's mentioned that "budding yeasts secrete a signaling molecule that may help yeasts mate with other yeasts that are not close relatives." Can you explain this further?(3 votes)
- Can type alpha cells have receptors that attract type alpha mating factors? Or the other way around?(3 votes)
- The type alpha cells have receptors that bond to the type a mating factors.
The type a cells have receptors for the type alpha mating factors.
The receptors don't actually attract anything, the mating factors just naturally float over after they're released.(1 vote)
- What is the point of meiosis for yeast cells if they can reproduce by mitosis? Is it to create some genetical differences?
Also, could 2 types a cells combine together and vice versa (e.g 2 type alphas)?
And another question, what type of yeast cell forms when alpha and a type yeast cells combine? Is it some intermediate?(2 votes)
- What is different between alpha and a yeast?(2 votes)
- Difference is in between factor they produce and signal each other.
A yeast produces a-factor but responds to alpha mating pheromone, while alpha-yeast produces alpha pheromone but responds to a-pheromone. :)(1 vote)
- You didn't mention how the ancestral yeast cell reproduced by meiosis? how come it creates 4 haploid cells?(1 vote)
- I don't understand your question. Are you asking how meiosis works? If so look at the KA videos and articles here
- Do we produce our sex cells the same way yeast cells do?(1 vote)
- On a very fundamental level, both human and yeast sex cells stem from the process of meiosis. However, human sex cells must go through more “processing” before they ultimately appear as the sperm and egg we know of, and have more complexity compared to the unicellular yeast cells.(1 vote)
- All of the examples of cell-cell signaling that we've looked at so far have been cells within an organism, but what I want to do in this video is point out that you can also have cell-cell signaling between different organisms, and even between different unicellular organisms. And so what we have here, these are pictures of yeast cells. Yeast are unicellular eukaryotic organisms which means they have a nucleus and they are officially fungi, and what you see happening in this picture right over here, it looks like you have a second yeast cell budding off of the first one. This happens fundamentally through mitosis, but yeast can actually reproduce in two different ways. It can reproduce asexually through mitosis like this, but it can also reproduce sexually, and that's where we're going to talk a little bit about signaling between the cells, and they do this with mating factors, and this is just an interesting discussion of yeast generally. So if you start with a yeast cell, so this is a yeast cell right over here, and this is a diploid yeast cell, so it has its full complement of chromosomes. So it's going to have 16 pairs, 16 pairs of chromosomes, or 32 total chromosomes. That's a diploid. So through mitosis it could split apart and it would do so like this. The one that buds off for most species of yeast will be smaller, although they're some that kind of do more even mitosis. But through mitosis you could produce two diploid yeast cells just like this. So all of these characters right over here are a diploid. And actually, just to stress, that they are eukaryotes. Let me draw a little nuclear membrane in here. But it can also divide through meiosis, so this is mitosis right over here, mitosis right over here help produce these two, but you can also go through meiosis. Meiosis, and if we go through meiosis we're going to produce four cells and what's interesting about these is that these will come in one of two varieties, and you could view these as the sex of these yeast cells. So they could either be in the type a variety, so let's make these two type a. So that's a type a, that's a type a right there, or they could be in the type alpha variety. So this is a , I'm using a different color. So this is a type alpha, and this is another type alpha, and all four of these are going to come through meiosis from this original diploid cell. And since we went through meiosis, each of these are going to be haploid. So these are all going to be haploids. This is going to be 16 chromosomes total, 16 chromosomes, chromosomes, each of them. So they're all going to be haploid and in fact, each of these can, to some degree, live a life of their own and continue to reproduce through mitosis. That's worth pointing out, that's interesting. You normally wouldn't associate sex cells, if it was anything but humans you wouldn't think that sperm cells would be able to replicate on their own, or egg cells would be able to replicate on their own but in the case of yeast, they actually can. So this type a cell could turn into, through mitosis, it could turn into two type a cells. So this is all just interesting background, mitosis. So even the products of meiosis can then mitose themselves. That's all interesting, this is all the set up to think about how they actually signal because these, these haploid cells that are producers of byproduct of meiosis, these are, these right over here, they all came from the original ancestor, which is actually fairly typical when we're talking about reproducing and kind of pseudo-sexually reproducing yeast cells. They don't have to, maybe one of the type alphas came from another ancestor, but what happens is they each release what's called mating factors, or you can consider them to be mating pheromones. So this type a right over here, it's going to produce, it's going to produce the type a mating factors and it's going to release them into the space around it. So it's releasing those type a mating factors and then the alphas are going to release the type alpha mating factors. So I'll do that in this orange-ish brown color. So they're going to release the type alpha mating factors. And what happens is each type has receptors for the other type's factors. So the type a is going to have receptors for the type alpha, for the type alpha. It's going to be in all over the outside of the cell, and the type alpha's going to have type receptors for the type a. Receptors, I'm going to do that in orange. It's going to have receptors for the type a. Let me just draw it like that, that's not exactly what they look like, or actually nowhere close to what they look like but it gives you a sense of things. It gives you a sense of things. And as through these receptors it starts bonding a lot of, say we're on the alpha cell right over here, it starts bonding to a lot of these mating pheromones, these mating factors. Then the yeast cell itself, it doesn't move but it starts growing in that direction, it starts growing in the direction where it says, "Hey, I'm sensing a lot of this mating factor." So it starts growing in this direction, it starts doing something like that. And the corresponding thing is going to happen for the type a cell. It's going to have the alpha factors attached onto it, and because of that it says, "Okay, "I'm sensing once again, the factors." The ligand, it attaches to the receptor, that's the sensing part. Then you have signal transduction and it's actually, it's not too dissimilar from the MAPK, the MAPK transduction pathway that we talk about in other videos. And then the response the cell has is, once again, to start growing in the direction of where it seems that these mating factors are coming from. And these kind of elongation, these outgrowths of these haploid yeast cells, they're actually called shmoos. So that right there, that is a shmoo. And you might say, where did that come from? Well, it came from this character right over here, which was a cartoon character in the middle 20th century, and I'll, you know... well, let's avoid any snickering over the course of this video, but that's what it looks like. And as they grow to each other, that actually allows them to join together and form another diploid, another diploid yeast cell. So if this process were to continue, if this process were to continue, these two shmoos will join together and the genetic makeup joins together and so we could get another diploid cell. And now this diploid cell is going to have kind of a new combination of DNA, so it could benefit from some of the variation of sexual reproduction. This is diploid. Although for yeast cells, they've like studied it because it's not clear that these are necessarily coming from a separate gene pool. These actually could have the same ancestor molecule so it is a bit of an open question in biology of why do they have this type of sexual reproduction, especially when they're coming from when these are essentially sibling cells as a byproduct of meiosis. But anyway, the whole point of this is one, to appreciate these fascinating things that are happening even at the level of yeast cells, and that you do have cell-cell signaling, not just within an organism, but across organisms, especially, or even unicellular organisms.