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### Course: AP®︎/College Chemistry > Unit 7

Lesson 1: States of matter# Change of state example

Specific heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization example: calculating how much energy it takes to vaporize 1.00 kg of ethanol starting from 20 degrees C. Created by Sal Khan.

## Want to join the conversation?

- hey guys do you know were I can get this type of question and the other examples we did from? I want to practice so that I'm comfortable in doing them , thanks(13 votes)
- At0:09Sal mentioned Kotz, Treichel, and Townsend 'Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity' as his source, so you can probably rent that from a library. Perdue hosts a chemistry site with practice problems for every section, too: http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/index.php(5 votes)

- Why does it take more time for liquids to turn into a gas than solids to turn into liquids?

Could you make a video or could some one answer this question?

and why does it take that much energy?(11 votes)- latent heat of fusion is less than latent heat of vaporization for an object.

That is the reason of more time taken by solids to transform into liquids than liquid to transform into gas.(3 votes)

- what is a joule?(11 votes)
- An SI unit of energy. N (Newtons) x m (meters) are equal to J (Joules). Kg (Kilograms) x m/s² (seconds²) are equal to Joules.The Joule is the SI unit for energy and is very closely related to work.(2 votes)

- Why do you write C2H5OH, rather than C2H6O?(3 votes)
- Because there two chemicals that have the molecular formula C₂H₆O.

Ethanol can be written as CH₃CH₂OH or as C₂H₅OH

The other chemical with the molecular formula C₂H₆O is methoxymethane, which has the structural formula CH₃OCH₃

Different chemicals that have the same atoms in the same quantities, but connected to each other in different ways are called isomers. Organic chemicals quite often have isomers, so it is necessary to use the structural formula rather than the molecular formula to specify which chemical you are talking about.(11 votes)

- Shouldn't the total grams and the final number of Joules be in Scientific Notation because it is difficult to tell how many significant figures the grams have(7 votes)
- Yes, that would make it easier to see the sig figs. But it's not uncommon for smallish numbers -- up to 10^4 or so, maybe -- to be written normally rather than in scientific notation. We're used to seeing ordinary numbers of about that size and it makes more sense at a glance.(4 votes)

- How do u know the freezing point of something if u are only given the boiling and melting point ?(2 votes)
- The melting point is the same thing as the freezing point.(10 votes)

- Does the joules system work the same as the metric system?(5 votes)
- Joules is the unit of energy in the metric system (or the SI system). If you were using foot pounds, etc, then you would find energy measured in foot-pounds or BTUs. So, I would say yes, the joules work the same as the metric system since joules is part of the metric system.(3 votes)

- At about3:42, he says that 1000 has 4 significant digits. But Doesn't 1000 have just 1 significant digit?

Your supposed to count the zeros only if they have a decimal point at the end right ( 1000.) ?(3 votes)- In chemistry lab, we have some special rules about that. Specifically, if you actually measure the trailing zero, then it is significant.

How many significant digits there are depends on the device you used to measure it. So, you really cannot make a blanket statement about how many significant digits a measurement with trailing zeros has.

A lab balance (depending on its quality) will have between 3 and 5 significant digits. So, we would normally assume that 1000 g has at least 3 significant digits.

To avoid this ambiguity, we would typically write the measurement in scientific notation and include only significant digits or we would specifically state what the precision is.(3 votes)

- I asked my chemistry teacher why doesn't the temperature change during phase change, she showed me a diagram and said that it is because the energy is used in breaking the bonds. Now when I asked how are the bonds being broken she said that heat is kinetic energy and more kinetic energy means the bonds are broken.

I opened chemistry stack exchange it told me that the heat during phase change doesn't change the kinetic energy, but literally**breaks**the bond.

https://chemistry.stackexchange.com/questions/15852/during-a-phase-change-in-matter-why-doesnt-the-temperature-change

What I wanna know is how does this heat energy affects the strength of the bonds without affecting kinetic energy of the particles.(4 votes) - We are doing enthalpy in AP Chemistry right now, and we learned that when a reaction is exothermic, because the system is giving off heat, the energy would be negative. Since the temperature is being raised in this reaction, isn't it exothermic, and shouldn't the resulting number of joules for part one (the temperature change) be negative? Basically, how do I know when to make it negative or positive?(2 votes)
- The number of joules (ΔH) is negative, but ΔT is positive.

You have to differentiate between the**system**and the**surroundings**.

The system is that part of the universe that you are interested in. In this case, the system consists of the chemicals that are reacting.

The surroundings consist of everything else — the solvent, the flask, etc.

Anything that goes out of the system and into the surroundings is negative. Anything that comes into the system from the surroundings is positive.

If the reaction is giving off heat to the surroundings, the reaction is exothermic and ΔH is negative. The surroundings will warm up, so ΔT for the surroundings is positive.

Exothermic → ΔH < 0 → ΔT(surroundings) > 0

Endothermic → ΔH > 0 → ΔT(surroundings) < 0(4 votes)

## Video transcript

I have this problem here from
chapter five of the Kotz, Treichel, and Townsend Chemistry
and Chemical Reactivity book, and I'm doing
this with their permission. So they tell us that ethanol,
C2H5OH, boils at-- let me do this in orange-- it boils at
78.29 degrees Celsius. How much energy, in joules,
is required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of
ethanol from 20 degrees Celsius to the boiling point and
then change the liquid to vapor at that temperature? So there's really two parts
of this problem. How much energy, in joules, to
take the ethanol from 20 degrees to 78.29 degrees
Celsius? That's the first part. And then once we're there,
we're going to have 78.29 degrees Celsius liquid
ethanol. But then we also need the energy
to turn it into vapor. So those are going to
be the two parts. So let's just think about
just raising the liquid temperature. Let's figure out how we're
going to do that. Just the liquid temperature. So the first thing I looked at
is well how many degrees are we raising the temperature? Well we're going from 20 degrees
Celsius-- let me write Celsius there just so it's
clear-- 20 degrees Celsius to 78.29 degrees Celsius. So how much did we raise it? Well, 78.29 minus 20 is 58.29. So our change in temperature
is equal to 58.29 degrees Celsius or this could even
be 58.29 kelvin. And the reason why we can do
that is because differences on the Celsius scale and
the kelvin scale are the same thing. The kelvin scale is just
a shifted version of the Celsius scale. If you added 273 to each of
these numbers you would have the kelvin temperature, but
then if you take the difference, it's going to be
the exact same difference. Either way you do it,
78.29 minus 20. So that's how much we have
to raise the temperature. So let's figure out how much
energy is required to raise that temperature. So we want a delta T. We want to raise the
temperature 58.29. I'll stay in Celsius. Actually let me just change it
to kelvin because that looks like what our units are given
in terms of specific heat. So let me write that down. 58.29 kelvin is our change
in temperature. I could have converted either of
these to kelvin first, then found the difference, and gotten
the exact same number. Because the Celsius scale and
the kelvin scale, the increments are the
same amount. Now, that's our change
in temperature. Now how much ethanol are
we trying to boil? Well, it tells us
right over here. It tells us that we're dealing
with 1 kilogram of ethanol. And everything else they give us
is in grams. So let me just write that 1 kilogram, that's
the same thing as 1,000 grams. We could just write it here. 1.00 kilogram is equal to-- or
let me write it this way-- times 1,000 grams
per 1 kilogram. These cancel out. This is the same thing as 1,000
grams. Although the reality is we only have three
significant digits-- this makes it look like
we have four. So we have 1,000 grams times
1,000 grams. And then we just multiply this times the specific
heat of ethanol. The specific heat capacity of
ethanol right here, 2.44 joules per gram kelvin. So times 2.44 joules. Let me write it this way, 2.44
joules per gram kelvin. You see that the
units work out. This kelvin is going to cancel
out with that kelvin in the denominator. This gram in the numerator
will cancel out with that grams. And it makes sense. Specific heat is the amount of
energy per mass per degree that is required to push
it that 1 degree. So here we're doing 58 degrees,
1,000 grams, you just multiply it. The units cancel out. So you have kelvin canceling
out with kelvin. You have grams canceling
out with grams. And we are left with-- take out
the calculator, put it on the side here. So we have 58.29 times 1,000--
times one, two, three-- times 2.44 is equal to-- and
we only have three significant digits here. So this is going to be 142--
we'll just round down-- 142,000 kelvin. So this is 142,000. Sorry 142,000 joules. Joules is our units. We want energy. So this right here is the amount
of energy to take our ethanol, our 1 kilogram of
ethanol, from 20 degrees Celsius to 78.29 degrees
Celsius. Or you could view this as from
293 kelvin to whatever this number is plus 273, that
temperature in kelvin. Either way, we've raised its
temperature by 58.29 kelvin. Now, the next step is, it's
just a lot warmer ethanol, liquid ethanol. We now have to vaporize it. It has to become vapor
at that temperature. So now we have to add the
heat of vaporization. So that's right here. We should call it the enthalpy
of vaporization. The enthalpy of vaporization,
they tell us, is 855 joules per gram. And this is how much energy you
have to do to vaporize a certain amount per
gram of ethanol. Assuming that it's already
at the temperature of vaporization, assuming that it's
already at its boiling point, how much extra energy per
gram do you have to add to actually make it vaporize? So we have this much. And we know we have 1,000
grams of enthanol. The grams cancel out. 855 times 1,000 is
855,000 joules. So it actually took a lot less
energy to make the ethanol go from 20 degrees Celsius to 78.29
degrees Celsius than it took it to stay at 78.29, but go
from the liquid form to the vapor form. This took the bulk
of the energy. But if we want to know the total
amount of energy, let's see if we can add this
up in our heads. 855,000 plus 842,000. 800 plus 100 is 900. That's 900,000. 50 plus 40 is 90. 5 plus 2 is 7. So it's 997,000 joules
or 997 kilojoules. Or we could say it's almost 1
megajoule, if we wanted to speak in those terms. But that's
what it will take for us to vaporize that 1
kilogram of ethanol.