Introduction to cell signaling
Learn how cells communicate with one another using different kinds of short- and long-range signaling in our bodies.
Think your cells are just simple building blocks, unconscious and static as bricks in a wall? If so, think again! Cells can detect what's going on around them, and they can respond in real time to cues from their neighbors and environment. At this very moment, your cells are sending and receiving millions of messages in the form of chemical signaling molecules!
In this article, we'll examine the basic principles of how cells communicate with one another. We'll first look at how cell-cell signaling works, then consider different kinds of short- and long-range signaling that happen in our bodies.
Overview of cell signaling
Cells typically communicate using chemical signals. These chemical signals, which are proteins or other molecules produced by a sending cell, are often secreted from the cell and released into the extracellular space. There, they can float – like messages in a bottle – over to neighboring cells.
Sending cell: this cell secretes a ligand.
Target cell: this cell has a receptor that can bind the ligand. The ligand binds to the receptor and triggers a signaling cascade inside the cell, leading to a response.
Nontarget cell: this cell does not have a receptor for the ligand (though it may have other kinds of receptors). The cell does not perceive the ligand and thus does not respond to it.
Not all cells can “hear” a particular chemical message. In order to detect a signal (that is, to be a target cell), a neighbor cell must have the right receptor for that signal. When a signaling molecule binds to its receptor, it alters the shape or activity of the receptor, triggering a change inside of the cell. Signaling molecules are often called ligands, a general term for molecules that bind specifically to other molecules (such as receptors).
The message carried by a ligand is often relayed through a chain of chemical messengers inside the cell. Ultimately, it leads to a change in the cell, such as alteration in the activity of a gene or even the induction of a whole process, such as cell division. Thus, the original intercellular (between-cells) signal is converted into an intracellular (within-cell) signal that triggers a response.
You can learn more about how this works in the articles on ligands and receptors, signal relay, and cellular responses.
Forms of signaling
Cell-cell signaling involves the transmission of a signal from a sending cell to a receiving cell. However, not all sending and receiving cells are next-door neighbors, nor do all cell pairs exchange signals in the same way.
There are four basic categories of chemical signaling found in multicellular organisms: paracrine signaling, autocrine signaling, endocrine signaling, and signaling by direct contact. The main difference between the different categories of signaling is the distance that the signal travels through the organism to reach the target cell.
Often, cells that are near one another communicate through the release of chemical messengers (ligands that can diffuse through the space between the cells). This type of signaling, in which cells communicate over relatively short distances, is known as paracrine signaling.
Paracrine signaling allows cells to locally coordinate activities with their neighbors. Although they're used in many different tissues and contexts, paracrine signals are especially important during development, when they allow one group of cells to tell a neighboring group of cells what cellular identity to take on.
One unique example of paracrine signaling is synaptic signaling, in which nerve cells transmit signals. This process is named for the synapse, the junction between two nerve cells where signal transmission occurs.
When the sending neuron fires, an electrical impulse moves rapidly through the cell, traveling down a long, fiber-like extension called an axon. When the impulse reaches the synapse, it triggers the release of ligands called neurotransmitters, which quickly cross the small gap between the nerve cells. When the neurotransmitters arrive at the receiving cell, they bind to receptors and cause a chemical change inside of the cell (often, opening ion channels and changing the electrical potential across the membrane).
Synaptic signaling. Neurotransmitter is released from vesicles at the end of the axon of the sending cell. It diffuses across the small gap between sending and target neurons and binds to receptors on the target neuron.
The neurotransmitters that are released into the chemical synapse are quickly degraded or taken back up by the sending cell. This "resets" the system so they synapse is prepared to respond quickly to the next signal.
Paracrine signaling: a cell targets a nearby cell (one not attached by gap junctions). The image shows a signaling molecule produced by one cell diffusing a short distance to a neighboring cell.
Autocrine signaling: a cell targets itself, releasing a signal that can bind to receptors on its own surface.
In autocrine signaling, a cell signals to itself, releasing a ligand that binds to receptors on its own surface (or, depending on the type of signal, to receptors inside of the cell). This may seem like an odd thing for a cell to do, but autocrine signaling plays an important role in many processes.
For instance, autocrine signaling is important during development, helping cells take on and reinforce their correct identities. From a medical standpoint, autocrine signaling is important in cancer and is thought to play a key role in metastasis (the spread of cancer from its original site to other parts of the body). In many cases, a signal may have both autocrine and paracrine effects, binding to the sending cell as well as other similar cells in the area.
When cells need to transmit signals over long distances, they often use the circulatory system as a distribution network for the messages they send. In long-distance endocrine signaling, signals are produced by specialized cells and released into the bloodstream, which carries them to target cells in distant parts of the body. Signals that are produced in one part of the body and travel through the circulation to reach far-away targets are known as hormones.
In humans, endocrine glands that release hormones include the thyroid, the hypothalamus, and the pituitary, as well as the gonads (testes and ovaries) and the pancreas. Each endocrine gland releases one or more types of hormones, many of which are master regulators of development and physiology.
For example, the pituitary releases growth hormone (GH), which promotes growth, particularly of the skeleton and cartilage. Like most hormones, GH affects many different types of cells throughout the body. However, cartilage cells provide one example of how GH functions: it binds to receptors on the surface of these cells and encourages them to divide.
Endocrine signaling: a cell targets a distant cell through the bloodstream. A signaling molecule is released by one cell, then travels through the bloodstream to bind to receptors on a distant target cell elsewhere in the body.
Signaling through cell-cell contact
Gap junctions in animals and plasmodesmata in plants are tiny channels that directly connect neighboring cells. These water-filled channels allow small signaling molecules, called intracellular mediators, to diffuse between the two cells. Small molecules and ions are able to move between cells, but large molecules like proteins and DNA cannot fit through the channels without special assistance.
The transfer of signaling molecules transmits the current state of one cell to its neighbor. This allows a group of cells to coordinate their response to a signal that only one of them may have received. In plants, there are plasmodesmata between almost all cells, making the entire plant into one giant network.
Signaling across gap junctions. A cell targets a neighboring cell connected via gap junctions. Signals travel from one cell to the other by passing through the gap junctions.
In another form of direct signaling, two cells may bind to one another because they carry complementary proteins on their surfaces. When the proteins bind to one another, this interaction changes the shape of one or both proteins, transmitting a signal. This kind of signaling is especially important in the immune system, where immune cells use cell-surface markers to recognize “self” cells (the body's own cells) and cells infected by pathogens.
Want to join the conversation?
- Could someone give an example of a
gaseous plant hormone(9 votes)
- The plant hormone ethylene promotes ripening, as seen in the ripening of dates. Ethylene is widely used in agriculture. Commercial fruit growers control the timing of fruit ripening with application of the gas.(32 votes)
- Wait, so then whats the feature of a target cell that makes it receptive to a particular signalling molecule? Would this be the shape of the receptor? Was that the second part spoken about in the overview video?(11 votes)
- Yes, the shape of the receptor is due to its function. A specific ligand will only fit into a specific shape of receptor protein.(15 votes)
- Can a ligand have more than one receptor?(7 votes)
- Yes, and a receptor can have more than one ligand.
You can read more about this here:
- How do these types of cell communications apply to the immune system?(7 votes)
- Cell signaling is essential for the functioning of the immune system.
The first line of defense, the humoral immune system relies on signaling. Leukocytes are being attracted with chemoattractants to come to the place of infection and pass blood barrier via diapedesis.
Later, when the second line of defense kicks in - B and T lymphocytes, again is influenced by signaling molecules.
B plasma cells recognize receptors on the surface of the cells of antigens so antibodies can bind to them and neutralize/kill them.
T killer cells need also receptor recognition in order to work properly and kill the pathogen, not a cell of host.(10 votes)
- How autocrine signaling is important in cancer, I mean what's the mechanism?(6 votes)
- That is way more advanced than can be covered in this introductory material and definitely not something I'm familiar with.
You might however find this section of the wikipedia article on autocrine signaling a useful place to start learning more:
- What happens if a ligand to a paracrine system moves past the binding reception? Does it become part of an endocrine communication? What if the cell is no longer there? For example, a dermis cell sends out a ligand to another dermis cell via paracrine communication but you get a gash (deep cut) in the location of the binding cell at that exact moment in which the gash physically takes out the binding receptor. What happens then?(6 votes)
- Is there a distinction between Paracrine signaling and Synaptic signaling?
Some sources suggest the two are different, kindly clarify for me on that point.(3 votes)
- Yes, they are different since synaptic signalling is more precise and specified form of paracrine signalling.
So to clear out, both are types of paracrine signalling. But paracrine signalling is just broader term, while synaptic is specuiifc for synapses and neuronal tissue.
Paracrine signalling is any type of signalling where signals bind to receptors and stimulate nearby cells. But in synaptic, those nearby cells involve synapses.(5 votes)
- what is the difference between cell signaling and signal transduction??(2 votes)
- Cell signaling is the broad multiple sets of pathways involved in how cells communicate. Signal transduction is one of those pathways. When a cell receives a signal, signal transduction is the multiple sets of processes that happen within the cell for that signal to reach its intended target and to then illicit a response.(5 votes)
- I don't understand the last sentence of synaptic signaling. Can someone please explain?(2 votes)
- The signaling cell reabsorbs the neurotransmitters so that it can release it again later.(3 votes)
- Is signaling across gap junctions also known as juxtacrine or is juxtacrine synonymous with synaptic signaling?(2 votes)
- In juxtacrine interactions, proteins from the inducing cell interact with receptor proteins of adjacent responding cells. The inducer does not diffuse from the cell producing it. There are three types of juxtacrine interactions. In the first type, a protein on one cell binds to its receptor on the adjacent cell.
In the second type, a receptor on one cell binds to its ligand on the extracellular matrix secreted by another cell. In the third type, the signal is transmitted directly from the cytoplasm of one cell through small conduits into the cytoplasm of an adjacent cell.
Yes, juxtacrine signalling is direct transmission through gap junctions.
Synaptic signalling has nothing to do with this.(1 vote)