- Why carbon is everywhere
- Water - Liquid awesome
- Biological molecules - You are what you eat
- Eukaryopolis - The city of animal cells
- In da club - Membranes & transport
- Plant cells
- ATP & respiration
- DNA, hot pockets, & the longest word ever
- Mitosis: Splitting up is complicated
- Meiosis: Where the sex starts
- Natural Selection
- Speciation: Of ligers & men
- Animal development: We're just tubes
- Evolutionary development: Chicken teeth
- Population genetics: When Darwin met Mendel
- Taxonomy: Life's filing system
- Evolution: It's a Thing
- Comparative anatomy: What makes us animals
- Simple animals: Sponges, jellies, & octopuses
- Complex animals: Annelids & arthropods
- Animal behavior
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- The excretory system: From your heart to the toilet
- The skeletal system: It's ALIVE!
- Big Guns: The Muscular System
- Your immune system: Natural born killer
- Great glands - Your endocrine system
- The reproductive system: How gonads go
- Old & Odd: Archaea, Bacteria & Protists
- The sex lives of nonvascular plants
- Vascular plants = Winning!
- The plants & the bees: Plant reproduction
- Fungi: Death Becomes Them
- Ecology - Rules for living on earth
Hank gets down to the nitty gritty about meiosis, the special type of cell division that is necessary for sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms. Created by EcoGeek.
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- Is meiosis typically for sex cells and mitosis for somatic cells?
Is the following correct: the first stage of meiosis I results in the same endpoint as mitosis. However, in meiosis II, the cells divide once more resulting in haploid cells?(29 votes)
- Meiosis is ONLY for sex cells. Mitosis is for somatic cells so they can repair parts of the body, make more cells, etc.
Meiosis I divides the number of chromosomes in half, making the cell haploid. The homologous chromosomes divide. Each cell still has 1 of each type of chromosome (1 #1, 1#2, 1 #3, etc.) but only one of it. Note that 1 chromosome still has 2 sister chromatids, which are identical. Meiosis II divides the sister chromatids apart, still keeping the cells haploid.
The cells need to be haploid so when they pair with a sex cell of the other sex, the offspring will have DIPLOID cells.(16 votes)
- Why does the reproduction does not continue forever?(8 votes)
- Telomeres are special, essential DNA sequences at both ends of each chromosome. Each time chromosomes replicate a small amount of the DNA at both ends is lost, by an uncertain mechanism. Because human telomeres shorten at a much faster rate than many lower organisms, we speculate that this telomere shortening probably has a beneficial effect for humans, namely mortality. The telomere hypothesis of aging postulates that as the telomeres naturally shorten during the lifetime of an individual, a signal or set of signals is given to the cells to cause the cells to cease growing (senesce). At birth, human telomeres are about 10,000 base pairs long, but by 100 years of age this has been reduced to about 5,000 base pairs.
Telomerase is actually an enzyme (a catalytic protein) that is able to arrest or reverse this shortening process. Normally, telomerase is only used to increase the length of telomeres during the formation of sperm and perhaps eggs, thus ensuring that our offspring inherit long "young" telomeres to propagate the species.(10 votes)
- How do scientists know which chromosomes control specific genes?(9 votes)
- Its not really that the chromosomes control specific genes, they just house them.
Chromosomes are just the skeletal structure where genes are located. And a specific genes always "live" on the same chromosome.
Finding out which chromosome contain which genes are done by taking a single chromosome and "reading" all the dna to see if they find genes there.(10 votes)
- what is the difference between diploid and haploid?(6 votes)
- A diploid cell is a cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs. Homologous just means similar but not identical. So a diploid cell would have two chromosomes for eye color.
A haploid cell is a cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair. So a haploid cell would only have one chromosome for eye color.(6 votes)
- I am really confused. So when gametes are being formed they exchange genetic information with other gametes? I thought gametes are formed separately from the other specie's gametes until the sperm is ready to meet the egg.(6 votes)
- When the diploid cell starts going through Meiosis, the cell consists of (in humans) 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes i.e 1 chromosome in each pair from mother and father of that person which relate to the same alleles (traits/genes). During Prophase 1, the pairs line up and genetic information is shared between the homologous chromosomes in each pair.
At the conclusion of Meiosis, this basically means that each gamete's chromosomes have genetic information from the mother and the father of that person and are completely unique.
Gametes do not exchange genetic information with other gametes. You could think of it as, during Meiosis, 'mother chromosomes' exchange genetic information with 'father chromosomes' to create unique 'child chromosomes'.(4 votes)
- what if you don't have all 42 chromosomes(0 votes)
- 8:35, cleavages form during meiosis in animal cells. Plant cells will create cell plates and not create cleavage, right?(4 votes)
- A cleavage furrow forms when an animal cell begins cytokenesis, while plant cells grow a cell plate that will eventually become the cell wall in the places where the cell split.(6 votes)
- Is it possible to have 2 or more of the same chromosome?(2 votes)
- It is possible to get two or even THREE of the same chromosome. A human being has 46 total chromosomes and 23 pairs (assuming it is a female: If it's a male, there are 22 pairs and 2 leftovers). 23 are from each parent. However, there are some disorders in which people can get more than two chromosomes. One such disorder is called trisomy 21, where there are 3 chromosome 21s. This is called Down's Syndrome. Most trisomys (especially in larger chromosomes) result in death for the recipient.(2 votes)
- At7:17, why are the X chromosomes shown to have crossed over if they can't cross over?(3 votes)
- Hank explains that since the chromosomes are the same, they can cross over. The XY pair can't cross over because they are different chromosomes.(2 votes)
- Which discovery did Gregor Mendel make?(3 votes)
- By studying pea plants he discovered that each generation acquired their traits and characteristics from their parents (half of which acquired from each parent) by particles passed on to them known as genes.(2 votes)
- Reproduction! Always a popular topic, and one that I don't mind saying that I am personally interested in. The kind of reproduction that we're most familiar with is of course sexual reproduction, where sperm meets egg, they share genetic information and then that fertilized egg splits in half, and then those halves split in half, and so on, and so on, and so on to make a living thing with trillions of cells that all do specialized things. And if you're not suitably impressed by the fact that we all come from one single cell, and then we become this, then I don't, I don't know how to impress you. But riddle me this, my friends, if sexual reproduction begins with sex cells, the sperm and the egg, where do the sperm and egg come from? Ah, dude. So, how do sex cells form, so that they each have only half of the genetic information that the resulting offspring will end up with? And for that matter, why aren't all of our sex cells the same? Like why, are my brother John and I, different? Sure, we both wear glasses, and we both kind of look like a tall Doctor Who, but you know, we have different color hair and different noses, and I'm way better at Assassin's Creed than he is, so why aren't we identical? As far as we know, we both came from the same two people, with the same two sets of DNA. The answer to these questions, and a lot of other life's mysteries, is meiosis. (Crash Course intro song plays) In the last episode, we talked about how most of your cells, your body or somatic cells clone themselves through the process of mitosis. Mitosis replicates a cell with the complete set of 46 chromosomes into two daughter cells that are each identical to each other. But of course, even though the vast majority of your cells can clone themselves, you cannot clone yourself. And for good reason, actually reasons. If mitosis were the only kind of cell division we were capable of that would mean: a) you would be a clone of one of your parents, which would be awkward to say the least, or possibly b) half of your cells would be clones from your mom and half would be clones from your dad, and you would look really weird. But that's not how we roll, we do things a better way, where all of your body cells contain the same mix of DNA, 46 chromosomes grow up into 23 pairs. One in each pair from your mom, and one from your dad. Those pairs of chromosomes are pretty similar, but they're not identical. They contain versions of the same genes, or alleles, in the same spot for any given trait. Since they're so similar, we call the pairs homologous chromosome pairs. Homologous is a word that comes up a lot in genetics, it just means that two things have the same homo-relation logos, even if they are a little bit different. However there are some very special cells that you have, that have only one half of that amount, 23 chromosomes, those are sperm and egg cells. These are the haploid cells, they have half of a full set of chromosomes. And they need each other to combine to make the complete 46. Creating those kind of cells requires a process that's very similar to mitosis, but with a totally different outcome, meiosis. That's when a specialized diploid cell splits in half, twice, producing four separate cells, each of which is genetically distinct from the others. Meiosis is a lot like mitosis, except twice. It goes through the same stages as mitosis, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase, but then it goes through another round of the stages again, and they have the same names, conveniently, except with a two after them. They're like sequels. And just as with the Final Destination movies, the sequels have pretty much the same plot, just some new actors. The raw materials for this process, are in your ovaries, or your testes depending on, you know, you know what it depends on. They're diploid cells called either primary oocytes, or primary spermatocytes depending on what kind of gamete they make. Men produce sperm, you may have heard, and they produce it throughout their adult lives, whereas women are born with a certain amount of eggs that they'll release over many years after puberty. Here you might wanna go watch the previous episode about mitosis again, because that's where we go into detail about each stage of the process. Once you're done with that, we can start making some babymakers. Just like with mitosis, there's a spell between rounds of cell division where the cell is gearing up for the next big split, and this is called interphase, when all the key players are replicating themselves. Long strings of DNA in the nucleus begin to duplicate, leaving two copies of every strand. To jog your memory about how DNA does this, we did a whole episode on it, you can watch it and come back. A similar process takes place with the centrosomes, a set of protein cylinders next to the nucleus that will regulate how all of the materials will be moved around along these ropey proteins called microtubules. And that brings us to the first round of meiosis prophase I. This is nearly the same as in mitosis, the centrosomes start heading to their corners of the cell, unspooling the microtubules, and the DNA clumps up with some proteins in the chromosomes. Each single chromosome is linked to its duplicate copy to make an X-shaped double chromosome. And keep this in mind, once attached, each single chromosome is called a chromatid, one on each side of the X. Each double chromosome, has two chromatids. Here meiosis prophase I includes two additional and very important steps, crossover and homologous recombination. Remember that the point here is to end up with four sex cells that each have just one single chromosome from each of the homologous pairs. But unlike in mitosis, where all the copies end up the same, here, every copy is going to be different from the rest. Each double chromosome lines up next to its homologue, so there's your mother's version lined up right next to your father's version of the same chromosome. Now if you look, you'll see that these two double chromosomes each with two chromatids, add up to four chromatids. Now watch, one chromatid from each X, gets tangled up with the other X, that's crossover. And while they're all tangled up, they trade sections of DNA, that's the recombination. The sections that they're trading are from the same location on each chromosome, so one is giving up its genetic code for like hair color or body odor, and in return, it's getting the other chromosome's genes for that trait. This is important, what just happened here, creating new gene combinations on a single chromosome. It's the whole point of reproducing this way. Life might be a lot less stressful if we could just clone ourselves, but then we'd also clone all our bad gene combinations, and we wouldn't be able to change and adapt to our environment. Remember that one of the pillars of natural selection is variation, and this is a major source of that variation. What's more, since all of the four chromatids have swapped some DNA segment at random, that means that all four chromatids are now different. Later on in the process, each chromatid will end up in a separate sex cell, and that's why all eggs produced by the same woman have a slightly different genetic code. Same for sperm and men. And that's why my brother John and I look different, even though we're made from the same two sets of DNA. Because of the luck of the genetic draw that happens in recombination. I got this mane of luscious hair, and John was stuck with his trash, brown puff, and don't forget about my mad Assassin's Creed skills. But then of course, there is that one pair of chromosomes that doesn't always go through the crossover or recombination. That's the 23rd pair, and those are your sex chromosomes. If you're female, you have two matched, beautiful, fully capable chromosomes there, your X chromosomes. Since they're the same, they can do the whole crossover and recombination thing. But if you, like me, are a male, you get one of those X chromosomes, and another from your dad that's kind of ugly and short, and runted and doesn't have a lot of genetic information on it. During prophase, the X wants nothing to do with the little Y because they're not homologous. So they don't match up, and because the XY pairs on these chromosomes will split later into single chromatids, half of the four resulting sperm will be X, leading to female offspring, and half will be Y, leading to male offspring. Now what comes next, is another kind of amazing feat of alignment. This is metaphase I, and in mitosis you might recall that all of the chromosomes lined up in a single row, powered by motor proteins, and were then pulled in half, but not here, in meiosis. Each chromosome lines up next to its homologous pair partner that it's already swapped a few genes with. Now the homologous pairs get pulled apart and migrate to either end of the cell, and that's anaphase I. The final phase, of the first round, telophase I, rolls out in pretty much the same way as mitosis. The nuclear membrane reforms a nucleoli form within them, the chromosomes fray out back into chromatid. A crease forms between the two new cells called cleavage, and then the two new nuclei move apart from each other, the cells separate in a process called cytokinesis, literally again cell movement. And that is the end of round one. We now have two haploid cells, each with 23 double chromosomes that are new, unique combinations of the original chromosome pairs. And these new cells, the chromosomes are still duplicated and still connected at the centromeres, they still look like X's. But remember, the aim is to end up with four cells, so it's time for those sequels. Here, the process is exactly the same as mitosis, except that the aim here isn't to duplicate the double chromosomes, but instead, to pull them apart into separate, single-strand chromosomes. Because of this, there's no DNA replication involved in prophase II, instead the DNA just clumps up again into chromosomes and the infrastructure for moving them, the microtubules, are put back in place. In metaphase II, the chromosomes are moved into alignment into the middle of the cell, and in anaphase II, the chromatids are pulled apart into separate, single chromosomes. The chromosomes uncoil into chromatid, the crease forming cleavage in the final separation of cytokinesis then mark the end of telophase II. From one original cell with 46 original chromosomes, we now have four new cells with 23 single chromosomes each. If these are sperm, all four of the resulting cells are the same size, but they each have slightly different genetic information, and half will be for making girls, and half will be for making boys. But if this is the egg-making process, then it goes a little bit differently here, and the result is only one egg. To rewind a little, during telophase I, more of the inner goodness of a cell, the cytoplasm, the organelles heads into one of the cells that gets split off, then to the other one. In telophase II, when it's time to split again, the same thing happens with more stuff going into one of the cells than the other. This big ol' fat remaining cell becomes the egg, with more of the nutrients and cytoplasm and organelles that it will take to make a new embryo. The other three cells that were produced, the little ones, are called polar bodies. And they're totally useless in people, though they are useful in plants. In plants, those polar bodies actually also get fertilized too, and they become the endosperm. That's the starchy, proteiny stuff that we grind into wheat or pop into popcorn, and it's basically the nutrients that feed the plant embryo, the seed. And that's all there is to it, I know you probably were really excited when I started talking about reproduction, but then I rambled on for a long time about haploid and diploid cells, but now you can't say that you know more about the miracle of reproduction-- it's not actually a miracle, it's science!