Health and medicine
- What's inside of blood?
- Red blood cells
- Blood types
- Blood cell lineages
- Life and times of RBCs and platelets
- Hemoglobin moves O2 and CO2
- Fetal hemoglobin and hematocrit
- Oxygen content
- How do we make blood clots?
- Coagulation cascade
- Bohr effect vs. Haldane effect
Blood cell lineages
All blood cells develop from a single type of cell called a pluripotent cell (also known as a hematopoetic stem cell or a hemocytoblast). Pluripotent cells can give way to different lineages of cells, including lymphocytes or myelocytes. The lymphocyte lineage is composed mainly of T- and B-cells (white blood cells), while the myelocyte lineage includes a variety of immune cells, as well as red blood cells.
Want to join the conversation?
- I was wondering what triggers cells to change from one form to another. For example what reaction causes the monocyte to change to a macrophage?(9 votes)
- From what I know, they are known as monocytes when they are moving around in the blood and lymph, kind of like a roaming guard. When they move out into the tissues and become a little bit more stationary, they become macrophages. It's likely to involve a lot of different chemical messengers and differences in the environments of blood/lymph and tissue.(3 votes)
- At0:42he mentions that there are 10 different compounds in blood, but end up talking about 12 different blood cells that are made in the bone marrow. Is this because he meant to say that there are ABOUT 10 compounds in the blood or are 10 of them more common then the remaining 2?(6 votes)
- Shouldn't hematopoietic stem cells be multipotent as opposed to pluripotent/omnipotent since they are restricted to developing into cells of the blood?(4 votes)
- I think you are right. Pluripotent cells can differentiate into the different germ layers, but multipotent cells are restricted.(2 votes)
- Do amputees have lower blood cell levels?(3 votes)
- It depends how soon after the amputation you are referencing. Just after, yes an amputee would have lower levels of blood due to the trauma of the surgery and the actual loss of bone marrow in the limb which used to produce blood cells. In the long term though, considering blood pressure would be unaffected, the body will compensate to the appropriate levels.(3 votes)
- if the bones make the cells then why a precursor?(3 votes)
- Precursor definition: a person or thing that comes before another of that person or thing.
The stem cells are like how kids can grow up to be a doctor or fire fighter. the stem cells will grow into the role that is needed.
Hope this helps :D(2 votes)
- At6:35,I was confused.What does the Natural Killer do?(1 vote)
- Natural Killer cells (NK cells) are white blood cells of the lymphoid lineage that can identify and kill unhealthy cells (tumour cells, cells hosting a virus). There are 2 main ways it can "sense" a dysfunctional cell.
MHC-1 (Major histocompatibility complex-1) is a molecule that appears on the surface of
most cells. When a cell is infected with a virus, it does not have as much energy to produce and maintain MHC-1. Natural Killer cells can "feel" this lower MHC-1 density and decide whether the cell is healthy or not. If not, they kill it.
The surface membrane of a cell is made up of a lipid bilayer, in which the hydrophobic (water-fearing) parts of the lipids face the inside, and the hydrophilic (water-loving) parts face the outside. This process is controlled with an enzyme called flippase. Flippase uses a molecule called ATP (adenosine triphosphate) to function. An unhealthy cell produces less ATP, and thus causing faults in this system. A hydrophobic molecule can actually end up on the surface of the cell. Natural Killer cells have a system of "sensing" when this occurs. If it does, they secrete cytotoxic molecules that kill the infected or unhealthy cell.
A substance called MICA appears specifically on the surface of tumour cells. This is another way of activating an immune response from Natural Killers.
Hope this helped!(5 votes)
- Do ALL the blood cell types come from the bone marrow?(2 votes)
- Yes, they all at least originate in the marrow. After a while, the T lymphocytes move to the thymus to complete maturation, but all blood cells trace their beginnings back to bone marrow.(1 vote)
- At4:30, he said that macrophages came from the myeloid lineage. Knowing that the lymphoid lineage usually produces most of the immune cells, why are the macrophages(white blood cells) produced from the myeloid branch?(2 votes)
- Wouldn't the white blood cells be one of the 10 cells in your blood?(1 vote)
- White blood cells (WBC) are also called leukocytes and include many of the cells mentioned in this video. Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils and Basophils are all WBCs in the blood. Furthermore, Monocytes become Macrophages in the tissues and there are several types of Lymphocytes, including T helper lymphocytes, T cytotoxic lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. In fact, there are also more specialized white blood cells protecting specific areas, such as the dendritic cells associated with the skin. So, you are right, there are white blood cells in the blood and they have specific names as well as specific jobs involved in protecting us. :)(3 votes)
- When you donate blood you would go to a local blood bank. my question is how long does it take for your body to recover having given a pint of blood?(2 votes)
- It depends on you! Your gender, height, weight, age and healthiness all play a part. I'm not sure on exact numbers, but I know that in Australia you have to wait 3 months between blood donations, to give your body plenty of time to produce all those cells again.
I can maybe break it down a bit. The blood volume you lose is mainly plasma. Your body responds to that pretty quickly, and within a couple of hours your blood volume should be back to pretty much normal. The things that take time to replenish are the RBCs, WBCs and platelets. Hope this helps! :)(1 vote)
- [Voiceover] So, let's draw a blood vessel. Here is a blood vessel. In any human, you or me, there's lots of different blood cells travelling around in all the blood vessels of the body. So, you've got your red blood cells, that I'm drawing here. But you've also got your T cells, which are immune cells. You've also got B cells. You've also got something called a macrophage. You've got neutrophils. You've got little platelets, which are actually fragments of cells, they don't have their own nucleoid. And, all in all, you actually have about 10 different kinds of blood cells. And a question you can ask, which is what we're gonna address in this video, is where do all these blood cells come from? Do you know? I'm gonna draw the answer right now and see if you can figure out what exactly I'm drawing. So, this is a bone. Because all these blood cells in the body come from the bone marrow. And here's the bone marrow that I'm drawing here. Now, actually it turns out that they don't come from all the bone marrow of the body. They come from certain places. Some of those places are the head of, for example, the femur, which is the long bone in your thigh. The head of the humerus, which is the long bone in your arm. Those are all long bones. And they also come from something called flat bones. These are very simple names, which I think is always good for us when we're learning a field. Flat bones, such as the one I'm drawing here, which is the sternum. The sternum is the flat bone in your body that connects to all the ribs. Here are some ribs. Of course, it has ribs on both sides. So, the blood cells come from these parts of the long bones and the flat bones of the body. And it turns out, which is interesting and which was not always known, it turns out that all these blood cells in your body have one common precursor, one grandfather, if you will. So, there's one grandfather cell that gives rise to all of these guys. And I'll draw him here. So, here he is. He's purple. His name is complicated. He's called a pluripotent. Pluripotent. If you ever took Latin, you might know that that means sort of able to do anything. Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell. And the reason that he's called pluripotent is that he is able to give rise to any of the ten blood cells. So, hematopoietic stem cell. You might recall that stem cells are sort of undifferentiated cells that can give rise to many different kinds of cells. So, this grandfather cell gives rise to two different lineages. And those two lineages are the myeloid lineage and the lymphoid lineage. And each of these lineages gives rise to many different cells. The myeloid lineage gives rise to red blood cells, which are biconcave in shape. They are the most common of all blood cells. Now, the myeloid lineage also gives rise to a big cell called a megakaryocyte. Now, you might have never heard of this before, but the megakaryocytes themselves produce platelets, which I think that you've probably have heard of. So, here are platelets. They're little fragments of cells, which actually bud off of the megakaryocytes like this. They kind of squeeze out little pieces of cytoplasm that become platelets. And now I have a challenge for you. Do you think that a macrophage, which is an immune cell that likes to eat up invaders like bacteria, do you think that macrophages come from the myeloid lineage or the lymphoid lineage? So, I was surprised to find out that they actually come from the myeloid lineage. I was surprised because macrophages are immune cells, but they actually come from the same lineage as red blood cells and platelets. So here is a... This is actually not yet a macrophage, this is a monocyte. A lot of crazy words here, but this is a monocyte. Monocytes actually become macrophages once they settle down in the tissues. But, before that, while they're still circulating, they are monocytes. And, in addition to the monocyte, the myeloid lineage gives rise to three guys, one of whom you have heard of probably, two of whom you may not have heard of. I'll just draw them here. So, the one you might have heard of is the, I'm running out of space here, but it's the neutrophil. Neutrophils are the most common immune cell in the blood. The other two are called eosinophils, which are significantly more rare than neutrophils. And, even more rare than eosinophils, are something called the basophils. So, it's the three phils. So, now let's go over to the lymphoid lineage. There's three important cells that come from this one. Two of them you've probably heard of. I'll draw them first. They're both lymphocytes, so it makes sense that they come from the lymphoid lineage. And those are B cells and T cells. And if you recall, B cells are the guys that are going to put out this molecule. Do you know what that is? That's an antibody. B cells make antibodies. And T cells have their own functions that you can learn about in the immune system videos. Now, the lymphoid lineage also gives rise to something called, it actually has a very sort of die morbid name. It's called a natural killer cell. Sometimes, we say NK. Natural killer. So, this is pretty much it. Here we've got our grandfather cell, who gives rise to two lines. You could call these, maybe, the father cells, if you want. And these give rise to our whole array of blood cells. Some of them you've heard of, some of them you haven't. You'll hear more about the ones you haven't heard of in the future. There's one or two more I wanna mention now that are maybe a little more complicated. We have something called a dendritic cell. And the reason I didn't mention it before is because the dendritic cells actually come from both sides, both lineages, which is confusing. They can come from the lymphoid and they can come from the myeloid by way of monocytes. So, monocytes can become dendritic cells. And then we also have another one coming from the myeloid lineage, which is actually fairly important. I could have mentioned it earlier. It's called a mast cell. And mast cells are most notable for causing allergic reactions. They release histamine. You know when you have an allergic reaction you might take an anti-histamine and you do that so that these mast cells can't make you feel crummy.