High school biology
- Elements and atoms
- Introduction to carbohydrates
- Introduction to proteins and amino acids
- Introduction to lipids
- Introduction to nucleic acids and nucleotides
- Introduction to vitamins and minerals
- Biological macromolecules review
- Biological macromolecules
Introduction to vitamins and minerals
Overview of common vitamins and minerals that are important to human health.
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- what are the monomers for vitamins and minerals?(10 votes)
- There are no monomers for vitamins and minerals. Vitamins and minerals function as single molecules interacting with macromolecules (DNA, RNA, enzymes, cholesterols, hormones, etc). Vitamin and mineral molecules do not form macromolecules. Macromolecules are made up of many monomers. Monomers are by definition, like molecules (sub-units) that are able to bind in long chains through the process of polymerization. Vitamins do not polymerize to form macromolecules, and neither do minerals.(19 votes)
- is vitamin C better for you then vitamin A(0 votes)
- Yes and no.
They are used for different things, so for some things, yes absolutely, but for others, no.
For example, if you lack collagen, vitamin C is better, but if you want to strengthen your immune system, vitamin A is better.
(I'm no expert, so please correct me if I am wrong, but this is my conclusion :))(4 votes)
- Why wasn’t vitamin B mentioned?(4 votes)
- Probably because there are too many of them to list, but would've been helpful for someone who is unfamiliar w/ small facts about them. Such as they are also water soluble.(6 votes)
- If beta-carotene gives carrots their orange color, then does that mean that purple and white carrots are not as good for you?(6 votes)
- @3:52-4:00, How can minerals be inorganic?(4 votes)
- Vitamins come from living things. Vita means life in Latin. Minerals do not come from living things (Sal had mentioned that minerals are also part of geology at4:00).(2 votes)
- What did you mean by overdose?2:05(1 vote)
- If an organism get too much of a vitamin (or just about anything) the build up can reach toxic levels and have negative effects. For example vitamin D is an essential nutrient for humans, and if a human gets too much vitamin D they can have short-term problems like nausea and vomiting or long-term problems like bone paint and kidney stones. Read more from the Mayo clinic website: https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/vitamin-d-toxicity/faq-20058108(6 votes)
- At5:51, Sal say that vitamin are also called co-enzymes. Are they exactly the same or are co-enzymes a different form of vitamin?(2 votes)
- Most vitamins are co-enzymes, which means they assist enzymes in performing their function. There are other types of co-enzymes that are not vitamins.(3 votes)
- What about phytonutrients? How are these different than vitamin and mineral?(2 votes)
- Phytonutrients (aka phytochemicals) are molecules produced by plants. They are vital for optimal health and disease prevention, but not essential. (The biological definition of essential is very strict. Without it the organism will die soon.) To me, the definition seems a bit fuzzy as to how they are different than vitamins and minerals. I think a different classification system is being used. I found this to be the most helpful webpage. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/phytochemical
There are many categories of phytochemicals including certain carbohydrates, certain lipids, terpenoids, phenolic acids, alkaloids and other nitrogen containing metabolites. Each of these six groups include other categories.(2 votes)
- so we get our vitamins from fruits, vegetables, and organic things, but where do we get minerals in our body from ? since sal said that minerals are not organic.(1 vote)
- Fruits and vegetables still have minerals in them because only means made mostly of carbon not eatable. Also, meat, fish and nuts have minerals in them.(4 votes)
- So when you do the diet, is it more useful to only eat the food with most vitamin C than doing the eating only one food for a long time?(2 votes)
- Vitamin C is a very important vitamin, but no it's not useful to only eat food with vitamin C in it. We also need other vitamins as well like, vitamin A (helps your eyesight, etc.) vitamin D (helps support strong bones) vitamin E, and vitamin K. I can see why you think we just need vitamin C, because Water solubles might sound safer than fat solubles; they don't accumulate in the body like fat solubles, but it's still very crucial you have both to keep a balanced diet.(1 vote)
- [Instructor] We've been told throughout out lives to eat certain foods because they contain vitamins or sometimes people might say they also contain some minerals that you need, and so the obvious question is, well what are vitamins? And what are these minerals that folks are talking about? Well the big picture idea is, that there's certain things that your body needs and we'll talk in a second about why your body needs these things, but also, there are things that your body needs and your body does not produce them. Body does not produce. There's a lot of things your body needs that your body is capable of producing but there's certain things that it needs that it cannot produce itself. Now if these things that they need, that the body needs and it cannot produce, if they are organic, and organic is just a very fancy way of saying if there are compounds that involve carbons in them, and most molecules in life involve a lot of carbons, that's why they're called organic molecules. There's a whole field of chemistry, of organic chemistry which is studying the chemistry of life for the most part. If these molecules, if these things that the body needs that it does not produce, itself are organic, we call these things vitamins. And some of the common vitamins that you'll hear people talk about are things like Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Vitamin C, and you can further divide these vitamins based on whether they are soluble in fat or not. So, for example, Vitamins A, D, E and K, and this is by no means an exhaustive list of vitamins, these are fat soluble. What does that mean? Well, to be soluble means you could be dissolved in that thing. So it can be dissolved in fat. And Vitamin C is water soluble. Now the reason why this might be relevant for you, living as an individual, trying to keep your health in good shape, is that you do need all of these vitamins, and we'll talk in a little bit about why you need them, but fat soluble vitamins, they're actually easier to overdose on, because they're soluble in fat, they can stay in your system a lot longer, while water soluble vitamins are easier to flush out of your system. Now, with that out of the way, let's think about some of these common foods you might see, and some of the vitamins that they are known for. For example, right over here you have carrots, and you might have had people tell you, "Hey, eat carrots. "It's good for your eyes." And that is true, but the reason why it's good for your eyes, is that carrots contain something known as betacarotene, and the carotene part of betacarotene is not a coincidence. It literally comes from Latin for carrot, and carotenes are these pigment molecules. It gives the carrot this orange color right over here, and betacarotene, once it's consumed by your body, it's a precursor for Vitamin A, which is essential for your eyes and many, many other things in your body. And a precursor's just a very fancy way of saying that if you consume betacarotene, you're body can turn it into the Vitamin A that it needs. Oranges, famous for Vitamin C, and this isn't an exhaustive list of things that these foods contain, but this is some of the things that they're most famous for, and Vitamin C as we talked about is a water soluble vitamin. It's very valuable for immune system, and in a situation where you have a severe deficiency of Vitamin C, you could get a disease known as scurvy. And scurvy is not too common anymore, but several hundred years ago, sailors would often get scurvy because they had very limited diets. They did not get fruits and vegetables, and because of that Vitamin C deficiency, their collagen, their connective tissue would break down. So it was a very horrible and painful disease. But what if there's something your body needs that it does not produce that is not organic? Well those are the things that we call minerals. And, of course, the term minerals, it's also used in a geological sense, but if were talking in terms of biology, that's what we mean. And most of the typical minerals are really elements that you will see on the periodic table. They will be things like phosphorous, and I'm just gonna write their element symbol. Phosphorous, calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, and again, this is not an exhaustive list, but these are all essential for your body. As we go further in our study of biology, you will see how phosphorous is useful in molecules like ATP, the energy store. It's even in the backbone of DNA and RNA. We'll see how calcium is useful, not just for your bones, but even for things like muscle contractions. To send signals down neurons, you're going to need your potassium and also sodium. Magnesium, also important for muscle contraction. Iron, this is in your hemoglobin, bonds to the oxygen, allows you to transport oxygen in your bloodstream and red blood cells. So these are all very valuable. And a lot of those foods that we just talked about that contain vitamins, they'll also contain minerals. For example, not only do carrots contain betacarotene, they also contain potassium, which we mentioned is essential for things like nerve function. Things like milk, it has vitamins, like Vitamin D, but it also has minerals like calcium, which we talked about as essential for your bones and for muscle function. And so the big picture here is, is that vitamins and minerals are both things that your body needs, that it does not produce itself, and we're going to see them over and over again in biology. So keep a lookout for them. The vitamins as we go further in our study of biology, we're going to see them as co-enzymes, things that help facilitate functions of the cell, help facilitate reactions and the minerals you're going to see in everything from the powerhouse of the cell, the backbone of DNA, you're going to see it in muscle contraction and how bones are formed. You're gonna see it in hemoglobin. You're gonna see it in nerve function.