High school biology
DNA, chromosomes, and genomes. Homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids, and haploid/diploid.
When a cell divides, one of its main jobs is to make sure that each of the two new cells gets a full, perfect copy of genetic material. Mistakes during copying, or unequal division of the genetic material between cells, can lead to cells that are unhealthy or dysfunctional (and may lead to diseases such as cancer).
But what exactly is this genetic material, and how does it behave over the course of a cell division?
DNA and genomes
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material of living organisms. In humans, DNA is found in almost all the cells of the body and provides the instructions they need to grow, function, and respond to their environment.
When a cell in the body divides, it will pass on a copy of its DNA to each of its daughter cells. DNA is also passed on at the level of organisms, with the DNA in sperm and egg cells combining to form a new organism that has genetic material from both its parents.
Physically speaking, DNA is a long string of paired chemical units (nucleotides) that come in four different types, abbreviated A, T, C, and G, and it carries information organized into units called genes. Genes typically provide instructions for making proteins, which give cells and organisms their functional characteristics.
Image of a eukaryotic cell, showing the nuclear DNA (in the nucleus), the mitochondrial DNA (in the mitochondrial matrix), and the chloroplast DNA (in the stroma of the chloroplast).
In eukaryotes such as plants and animals, the majority of DNA is found in the nucleus and is called nuclear DNA. Mitochondria, organelles that harvest energy for the cell, contain their own mitochondrial DNA, and chloroplasts, organelles that carry out photosynthesis in plant cells, also have chloroplast DNA. The amounts of DNA found in mitochondria and chloroplasts are much smaller than the amount found in the nucleus. In bacteria, most of the DNA is found in a central region of the cell called the nucleoid, which functions similarly to a nucleus but is not surrounded by a membrane.
A cell’s set of DNA is called its genome. Since all of the cells in an organism (with a few exceptions) contain the same DNA, you can also say that an organism has its own genome, and since the members of a species typically have similar genomes, you can also describe the genome of a species. In general, when people refer to the human genome, or any other eukaryotic genome, they mean the set of DNA found in the nucleus. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are considered to have their own separate genomes.
In a cell, DNA does not usually exist by itself, but instead associates with specialized proteins that organize it and give it structure. In eukaryotes, these proteins include the histones, a group of basic (positively charged) proteins that form “bobbins” around which negatively charged DNA can wrap. In addition to organizing DNA and making it more compact, histones play an important role in determining which genes are active. The complex of DNA plus histones and other structural proteins is called chromatin.
Image of a long, double-stranded DNA polymer, which wraps around clusters of histone proteins. The DNA wrapped around histones is further organized into higher-order structures that give a chromosome its shape.
For most of the life of the cell, chromatin is decondensed, meaning that it exists in long, thin strings that look like squiggles under the microscope. In this state, the DNA can be accessed relatively easily by cellular machinery (such as proteins that read and copy DNA), which is important in allowing the cell to grow and function.
Decondensed may seem like an odd term for this state – why not just call it “stringy”? – but makes more sense when you learn that chromatin can also condense. Condensation takes place when the cell is about to divide. When chromatin condenses, you can see that eukaryotic DNA is not just one long string. Instead, it’s broken up into separate, linear pieces called chromosomes. Bacteria also have chromosomes, but their chromosomes are typically circular.
Each species has its own characteristic number of chromosomes. Humans, for instance, have 46 chromosomes in a typical body cell (somatic cell), while dogs have 78. Like many species of animals and plants, humans are diploid (2n), meaning that most of their chromosomes come in matched sets known as homologous pairs. The 46 chromosomes of a human cell are organized into 23 pairs, and the two members of each pair are said to be homologues of one another (with the slight exception of the X and Y chromosomes; see below).
Human sperm and eggs, which have only one homologous chromosome from each pair, are said to be haploid (1n). When a sperm and egg fuse, their genetic material combines to form one complete, diploid set of chromosomes. So, for each homologous pair of chromosomes in your genome, one of the homologues comes from your mom and the other from your dad.
Image of the karyotype of a human male, with chromosomes from the mother and father false-colored purple and green, respectively.
The two chromosomes in a homologous pair are very similar to one another and have the same size and shape. Most importantly, they carry the same type of genetic information: that is, they have the same genes in the same locations. However, they don't necessarily have the same versions of genes. That's because you may have inherited two different gene versions from your mom and your dad.
As a real example, let's consider a gene on chromosome 9 that determines blood type (A, B, AB, or O). It's possible for a person to have two identical copies of this gene, one on each homologous chromosome—for example, you may have a double dose of the gene version for type A. On the other hand, you may have two different gene versions on your two homologous chromosomes, such as one for type A and one for type B (giving AB blood).
The sex chromosomes, X and Y, determine a person's biological sex: XX specifies female and XY specifies male. These chromosomes are not true homologues and are an exception to the rule of the same genes in the same places. Aside from small regions of similarity needed during meiosis, or sex cell production, the X and Y chromosomes are different and carry different genes. The 44 non-sex chromosomes in humans are called autosomes.
Chromosomes and cell division
Image of a cell undergoing DNA replication (all the chromosomes in the nucleus are copied) and chromosome condensation (all the chromosomes become compact). In the first image, there are four decondensed, stringy chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell. After DNA replication, each chromosome now consists of two physically attached sister chromatids. After chromosome condensation, the chromosomes condense to form compact structures (still made up of two chromatids).
As a cell prepares to divide, it must make a copy of each of its chromosomes. The two copies of a chromosome are called sister chromatids. The sister chromatids are identical to one another and are attached to each other by proteins called cohesins. The attachment between sister chromatids is tightest at the centromere, a region of DNA that is important for their separation during later stages of cell division.
As long as the sister chromatids are connected at the centromere, they are still considered to be one chromosome. However, as soon as they are pulled apart during cell division, each is considered a separate chromosome.
What happens to a chromosome as a cell prepares to divide.
- The chromosome consists of a single chromatid and is decondensed (long and string-like).
- The DNA is copied. The chromosome now consists of two sister chromatids, which are connected by proteins called cohesins.
- The chromosome condenses. It is still made up of two sister chromatids, but they are now short and compact rather than long and stringy. They are most tightly connected at the centromere region, which is the inward-pinching "waist" of the chromosome.
- The chromatids are pulled apart. Each is now considered its own chromosome.
Why do cells put their chromosomes through this process of replication, condensation, and separation? The short answer is: to make sure that, during cell division, each new cell gets exactly one copy of each chromosome.
For a more satisfying answer, check out the articles and videos on the cell cycle and mitosis. There, you can see how the behavior of chromosomes helps cells pass on a perfect set of DNA to each daughter cell during division.
Want to join the conversation?
- So cells go under mitosis and meiosis. DNA is copied and split, but wouldn't that mean the other organelles in the cell have to copy too? It is never mentioned and I wonder if there is a reason or something.(52 votes)
- There is a production of cellular organelles and proteins during the life of the cell prior to replication. And, in fact, some of the cellular organelles DO contain genetic material (for example, mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own DNA specifying mitochondrial and chloroplastic proteins) which must be replicated during the process of organelle reproduction.(12 votes)
- sperms have 1 sex determining chromosome x or y or it has 2 both x and y?(22 votes)
- Sperm cells contain either an x chromosome or a y chromosome, not both. They have only one sex determining chromosome, and that can be x or y.(6 votes)
- The general concept of mitosis is one cell splitting into two. But, the text does not discuss how any cell dies. It appears to me that the amount of cells in a certain organ would just keep increasing and increasing. It does not seem that the cells die to balance out the amount of cells, they just keep increasing by spitting into two. How does that work for the body?(12 votes)
- In addition to what Aleksandr has said here, you may also wish to consider that mature organs contain many cells which no longer reproduce, but simply serve their function until they die and are replaced. These cells are said to be in "G-zero." You can think of them as done with reproduction and simply doing their job... like many humans at an advanced age!(9 votes)
- How many DNA are there in a chromosomes?(7 votes)
- A chromosome has many genes, a combination of genetic information that gives rise to characteristics, but it is only one extremely super long DNA strand(19 votes)
- how does DNA get to the cells in the body?(8 votes)
- All cells start from the original fertilized zygote. The two gametes (sperm and ovum) contain 23 chromosomes(n) each and when the sperm fertilizes the egg(ovum), the zygote now has a total of 46 chromosomes and becomes diploid (2n). This zygote then goes through many stages of the replication cycle to create more and more cells called somatic cells or body cells. If your confused you should watch this video here: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-molecular-biology/intro-to-cell-division/v/fertilization-haploid-diploid-gamete-zygote-homologous
So to try and sum up your question, the DNA does not enter into every new cell but is actually a genetic copy that was produced by its mother cell. This process happens millions of times.(10 votes)
- chroma means colored and soma means body. . . It means chromosomes are colored, right?(4 votes)
- It actually comes from the fact that chromosomes can easy accept/take up dye. Heres a link I found: https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/chromosome(10 votes)
- In the first paragraph (DNA and Genomes), it says that almost all cells in the human body have DNA. There are some cells without DNA?(4 votes)
- Yes - red blood cells are enucleated to make more space for hemoglobin, the protein that binds to oxygen.(7 votes)
- Can you explain me the basic understanding about mitosis and meiosis?
I am always getting confused between them.(4 votes)
- Meiosis is for sex cells or gametes (these cells don't have the same genetic makeup as the original germ cell), and mitosis is to copy and reproduce new cells resulting in the same genetic makeup as the original somatic cell.(6 votes)
- How do proteins,exactly,indicate the functions of cells and organisms?like how do they know if a certain gene is responsible for blonde hair or dark hair and how do they help these characterestics show themselves?(3 votes)
- I don't know about human eye colour, but proteins carry out many functions in the body, from regulating what gets into or out of the cell, keeping the cell's structure, and catalysing reactions that make other molecules in the cell (this is the job of enzymes). I don't know about the human eye colour, but it will be something to do with whether a pigment gets made. In fruit flies, which normally have red-brown eyes, there are mutants with white eyes with mutations in a transporter which means a precursor for certain pigments can't enter the cell.
Finding out which genes do what is what genetics is all about. There are lots of experiments that go into actually finding out what the gene encodes in terms of protein.(4 votes)
- what are chromosomes made out of(3 votes)
- Chromosomes are made up of proteins and a single molecule of
DNA(deoxyribo- nuclaic acid)(3 votes)