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# Worked examples: Finding the hybridization of atoms in organic molecules

We can find the hybridization of an atom in a molecule by either looking at the types of bonds surrounding the atom or by calculating its steric number. In this video, we use both of these methods to determine the hybridizations of atoms in various organic molecules. Created by Jay.

## Want to join the conversation?

• why does "s" character give shorter bond lengths?
• The s-orbital is the shortest orbital(sphere like). While the p-orbital is quite long(you may see the diagrams).
So, when the s and p orbitals hybridize, the length of the orbital becomes short with the increase in s-character(as in sp hybridization). Which is why increased "s" character give shorter bond lengths.
Hope this helps you :)
• is the hybridization of oxygen sp2... then what is its shape
• In 2-aminopropanal, the hybridization of the O is sp². The C=O bond is linear.
• in a triple bond how many pi and sigma bonds are there ??
(1 vote)
• 1 sigma and 2 pi bonds. This was covered in the Sp hybridization video just before this one.
• At around , Jay said that the triple bond had two pi bonds and one sigma. I thought that a triple bond always had one pi and two sigma,
• Sigma bonds are the FIRST bonds to be made between two atoms. They are made from hybridized orbitals. Pi bonds are the SECOND and THIRD bonds to be made. They are made from leftover "p" orbitals.
• What is hybridisation of oxygen in phenol??
• The oxygen atom in phenol is involved in resonance with the benzene ring,
That means that it must have electrons in a p orbital to overlap with the p orbital on C-1.
The hybridization is sp².
• So am I right in thinking a safe rule to follow is
all single bonds= sigma bonds and sp3 hybridization
double bond(s)= one sigma and one pi bond, sp2 hybridizaton
triple bond(s)= one sigma and two pi bonds, sp hybridization
or is this not entirely correct?
• This is almost an ok assumtion, but ONLY when talking about carbon. When you have carbon you can safely assume that it is hybridized. An alkyne (triple bond) is an sp hybridized carbon with two pi bonds and a sigma bound.
• What is the name of the molecule used in the last example at ?
(1 vote)
• It's called 3-aminopropanal.

If you wonder how we come up with a name like that, here's a brief explanation.

The number of carbons in a row, or a chain, decide what the base name is. Three carbons are the backbone of the molecule which give a 'prop' base name. Because there are only single bonds between the carbon atoms, that makes it 'propan' more specifically as the base name.

The two important (or unique) parts of the molecule called functional groups are the oxygen and nitrogen parts of it. The nitrogen part is what is known as an amine while the oxygen part is known as an aldehyde. The trick for the name is deciding which one of those functional groups takes priority. In organic chemistry aldehydes take priority over amines so this molecule is technically an aldehyde as a class of molecule which is reflected in the suffix of -al. The amine is then what is known as a substituent, or is substituting a hydrogen atom which would otherwise be bonded to a carbon. As a substituent it gets the name amino-. The 3 in front says which carbon the amino group is on because a molecule with just aminopropanal could have that amino group on any of the other carbon atoms. So the 3 specifies it is the third carbon in the chain which bears the amino group.

Hope that helps.
• can somebody please explain me how histidine has 6 sp2 and 5 sp3 atoms!
• Have a look at the histidine molecules and then have a look at the carbon atoms in histidine. Those with 3 bond (one of which is a double bond) will be sp2 hybridized. Those with 4 bonds are sp3 hybridized.
• what is the connection about bond and orbital，like sigma bond is sp3,sp2 sPhybridization and πbond must be p orbital?
• There is no general connection between the type of bond and the hybridization for all molecules but since in organic chemistry it is only the hybridization of carbon which we need to know, we get the following connection-

Single bonded carbon is sp3 hybridized.
Double bonded carbon is sp2 hybridized.
Triple bonded carbon is sp hybridized.

We get this from the formula for calculating the hybridization where ->
Steric Number=No. of sigma bonds + No. of lone pairs
....and then then the value of the steric number gives us the number of hybridized orbitals.
Coming to the doubt about sigma and pi bonds, remember that the first bond between 2 atoms is always a sigma bond and any additional bond between these 2 atoms will be a pi bond.