- Myosin and actin
- How tropomyosin and troponin regulate muscle contraction
- Role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle cells
- Anatomy of a skeletal muscle cell
- Three types of muscle
- Motor neurons
- Neuromuscular junction, motor end-plate
- Type 1 and type 2 muscle fibers
- Calcium puts myosin to work
- Muscle innervation
- Autonomic vs somatic nervous system
- Thermoregulation mechanisms
Understand the different divisions of the brain that control our muscles. Unpack the nervous system's two key divisions: the autonomic and somatic systems. Learn how the autonomic system, managing involuntary actions, further divides into the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Discover the crucial role of neurotransmitters like acetylcholine and noradrenaline in these processes. By Raja Narayan. Created by Raja Narayan.
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- What is the difference between the neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine?(9 votes)
- Norepinephrine is also most commonly found to be a neurotransmitter directly effecting the target, while epinephrine released by the adrenal medulla is a neuroendocrine and travels throughout the body in the blood/plasma.(13 votes)
- So, is that the difference between adrenaline and noradrenaline, that one is the hormone and the other the neurotransmitter? I just don't get what makes them different.(4 votes)
- Really, there is minimal difference. The primary difference lies in the receptors that they have a higher affinity for. Noradrenaline (NE) prefers alpha and beta 1 receptors while adrenaline (E) has greater specificity for only alpha receptors.
Binding to alpha receptors causes a constriction of the vessel walls; binding to beta-1 receptors causes increased force and speed of cardiac contractions, increased irritability of the heart, &c.; and binding to beta-2 receptors causes bronchodilatation and vasodilation in the walls of the blood vessels of muscles.
Sorry for the late response and it is really basic as I don't know how much biochemistry you know.(11 votes)
- At the end of this video you said that these were the parts of the CNS. I thought they were part of the PNS. Isn't the CNS just basically consist of the brain and spinal cord?(6 votes)
- This is the correction pop-up that "Wrath of Academy" mentioned:
Raja said, "two major divisions of the central nervous system", but meant "two major divisions of the peripheral nervous system".
Before that, there was this correction pop-up:
Raja said "the sympathetic nervous system use NE", but meant "the pre-ganglionic nerves of the sympathetic nervous system use ACh and the post-ganglionic nerves use NE."
...and neither did show when watched in full-screen.(3 votes)
- if a person don't have a proper alignment of the spinal cord. That person could have problem with the autonomic nervous system?(4 votes)
- Is autonomic = involuntary and somatic = voluntary?(3 votes)
- What's the difference between somatic and autonomic?
Are you saying that autonomic is involuntary or somatic is voluntary?(2 votes)
- Somatic Nervous System is the one that allows conscious (voluntary) control of skeletal muscles. Autonomic N. S. has the unconscious (involuntary) control of the body and it has 2 branches, the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic NS. You are going to need book, I suggest OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology textbooks, because they are free and available on line at https://openstax.org/details/books/anatomy-and-physiology
Also you can go to Wikipedia, and look them up there. I would use the book, and then use Wikipedia for more detail.(2 votes)
- at1:00, which neurotransmitter is for sym and which is for para? there's something about pre and post? confused.(1 vote)
- The same neurotransmitters can be found in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems although the concentration may be more. For pre and post I think you refer to pre and post synaptic. Pre is the starting neuron, post is the one that receives the signal.(3 votes)
- In medical shows, why do the doctors ask for "epi" when someone's heart is stopping if epi as in epinephrine is the part of parasympathetic nervous system? wouldn't it slow down heart ?(1 vote)
- Epi is part of the sympathetic nervous system, your body produces epinephrine when under stress.(2 votes)
- Did you mean that these are the two components of the PERIPHERAL nervous system, instead of the CENTRAL nervous system? I thought the CNS was made up of the brain and spinal cord.(1 vote)
- You are correct that the CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord. If you go to the open encyclopedia, Wikipedia, under nervous system there is a diagram that illustrates the system well. The autonomic and somatic nervous system s are efferent or motor command pathways of the peripheral n. s.
We can think of the nervous system as split up into two other parts. There's going to be an autonomic nervous system branch. And as the name kind of sounds like, this is your automatic control. That's the involuntary parts that we talked about from above. Beside that, there's also going to be a control that we exert. And so that's going to be called the somatic nervous system. So that's something that we control, somatic nervous system. Underneath the autonomic classification, you can break this up into two other parts. One is called the sympathetic nervous system. And we sort of alluded to that above when we were talking about the sympathetic ganglia that were part of involuntary control. In addition, we also have a parasympathetic nervous system that sort of sits in a checks-and-balances position with the sympathetic nervous system. And that's how we break this up. The somatic nervous system is just the somatic nervous system. So it has just sort of one function, and it's trying to control voluntary muscle. So the neurotransmitter that we use here, which you may recall-- and I'll put this in parentheses-- is acetylcholine. And we abbreviate that ACh for acetylcholine. What about the neurotransmitters that are used by the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system? We actually sort of know them already, at least for the sympathetic nervous system. And we can come up with it. And the way you know them is if you think about what the sympathetic nervous system does. Because I'm sure you've heard of this phrase called your fight and flight response. Fight or flight. And so that's when you're in a dire situation and your body senses, uh-oh, I may die at any second now. I need to do something to get out of here. And so you activate the sympathetic nervous system so that you can achieve fight or flight. You start pumping adrenaline through your body, and you get your heart to beat faster so you can pump more oxygen to your legs to help you run quicker and get away. So that's fight or flight. And so I mentioned adrenaline, which is an endocrine hormone that's secreted to help with this. But it also has a neurotransmitter friend that does the same thing. And so the neurotransmitter friend that I'm going to write up here, it's not adrenaline, but it's noradrenaline. Starts with an N. And another term for that is norepinephrine. I'll write it out. Norepinephrine. Or noradrenaline. And so that's the neurotransmitter that's used by the sympathetic nervous system. What about the parasympathetic nervous system? Well, oddly enough it actually uses the same one that the somatic nervous system does. And the way that you can sort of differentiate this from the sympathetic nervous system is that, while the sympathetic nervous system is for the super, hardcore, intense moments where it's fight or flight, the parasympathetic nervous system is a little more chill. This is for rest and digest. So when you're going to sleep and you're trying to relax so your heart rate can lessen and your muscles and your heart aren't contracting as quickly. Or if you just ate a big meal and you need to digest that food, the parasympathetic nervous system will tell the stomach to churn that food up so you could digest it in your intestines as you also propel it along with the smooth muscle in there. So that's achieved by acetylcholine. All right? So that's the two major divisions of the central nervous system, autonomic and somatic.