If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

Main content
Current time:0:00Total duration:5:28

Draw Conclusions | Worked example

Video transcript

- [Instructor] Hello, future teachers. We're looking at a short passage and just one question, and something that some people like to do when there's only one question, as opposed to multiple questions corresponding to a passage, is look at the question first and have that drive the reading of the passage. So let's see what we're being asked here. Given the information provided in the passage, in which of the following cases will an increase in the number of times one encounters an advertisement most reliably affect its persuasive impact? All right, so that doesn't tell me a ton. I think there's gonna be something from the passage that we have to pull out and apply to new situations. So in the passage, let's look for things pertaining to the number of times you encounter an advertisement and how it affects you or how it affects one rather. Okay, so the passage reads like this. There is substantial evidence that the number of exposures to an advertising message influences its persuasive impact when the target ad is the only stimulus to which subjects are exposed. Cool, okay, so number of exposures to an advertising message influences its persuasive impact. So it has an influence on the persuasive impact when there's more of 'em, so, more is good when it is the only stimulus to which subjects are exposed. So if it's the only thing going on, that's good, plus sign. However, so we've got a transition here, this repetition effect is far less reliable when the target ad is presented in a cluttered environment. Okay, so lonely, lonely ad, smiley face, many ads, sad face, in a cluttered environment that includes other advertisements and program material. Okay, so given the information provided in the passage, in which of the following cases will an increase in the number of times one encounters an advertisement most reliably affect its persuasive impact? All right, so what we got from this passage is that if an ad is on its own, right, the only stimulus to which subjects are exposed, then the advertising message's impact, its persuasive impact is increased or at the very least influenced. So for me, I think the key here is most reliably affect, right? Which of these choices will have the strongest effect coming from an increased number of the same advertisement? So we're looking for the least cluttered situation. When one is reading a newspaper that has only a limited number of advertisements. Okay, so there's a limited number of advertisements, but we're also reading a newspaper, which to me would be program material. Radio, television, newspaper articles, that's getting in the way of the ad. So this, this could be it. Let's see how cluttered or uncluttered the other ones are. When one is listening to a talk radio station featuring few advertisements. Well, this seems very similar to A, so this could also be a contender. Option C, when one is driving in a barren area on an empty highway that has very few billboards. Mm, this is interesting because the action that you're doing, driving in a barren area, isn't the same as reading a newspaper or listening to talk radio. You're just driving. Driving isn't program material. You're performing an action. So although there are very few billboards, that's an uncluttered situation. All of these take place in uncluttered situations, but talk radio and newspaper to me counts as program material. So I'm gonna cross these off. Get rid of the stars, bye stars. I'm gonna star this one 'cause right now C is my top contender. When one is watching television, well, there's some program material, and constantly changing the channel in an attempt to avoid seeing commercials. Well, that may be a low ad density, but that's a lot of clutter as far as program material goes. So I'm gonna cross that off and say no. When one is put on hold during a telephone call and subjected to various automated advertising messages. All right, so it would be hard to call a telephone call program material. That's not the same as watching TV, reading the paper, or listening to talk radio. And also, in this scenario, you're on hold, so you're not even listening to anything at that point. But we've got various automated advertising messages, and the question is if we increased the number of times you encountered an advertisement. Well, while you're on hold on this telephone call, you're being subject to multiple automated advertising messages, and that makes it a cluttered scenario. And that means that it won't as reliably increase the persuasive impact according to the passage. So I'm gonna say no. So that leaves us with option C because the more often you see, because the more often our driver sees a billboard in this very uncluttered highway, the more effective its persuasive impact will be. And I didn't do this from like common sense or anything. I'm not trying to derive this from my experience driving on abandoned highways. All of this we pulled from the passage. So if you see a question like this when you go through it, restate what the rules are in your own words, come up with a test, and then apply that test to the choices.